Lecture 10 - Lecture 10 ANIMAL REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style Lecture 10 ANIMAL REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT  
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Learning Objectives:   To contrast the advantage and disadvantage of sexual and asexual reproduction. To acquire knowledge on the principles of embryology To describe human reproduction; male and female To elaborate the sequence of human development beginning from the formation of zygote to delivery and growth of the human baby.
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Learning Outcomes At the end of the lecture, students will be able to: Describe the costs and benefits of sexual reproduction compared to asexual reproduction Describe in details the various stages of development in embryology. Describe human male and female reproductive systems by looking into the organs, cells and hormones involved Describe the development of zygote up to the birth of the fetus and postnatal development
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Two types of reproductive  mechanism: Sexual Asexual 
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Sexual vs Asexual Reproduction Sexual Reproduction Asexual Reproduction A gamete (n) from both the parent fuses to form zygote (2n). A new individual formed. Better survivorship; adaptation to the environment. Suitable in constantly changing environment Offspring produced by all means but not by gamete fusion. Offspring genetically and phenotypically similar with parents. Lower survivorship; similar adaptation to the parent generation. Not suitable in constantly changing environment.
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Costs of Sexual Reproduction   Energy and resources must be allocated to forming and nurturing gametes. Timing of gamete formation and mating must be synchronized between both the sexes- reproductive timing . Finding potential mate Ensuring the survival of offspring. Some females nourish their developing embryo with yolk Yolk – thick fluid containing proteins and lipids
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Reproductive timing allows the male & female gametes to be available at nearly the same time for fertilization depends on the sensory structures and hormonal changes.
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Potential mate finding one of the same species is a challenge Pheromones are used by some animals to lure the females Some engage in courtship displays Some engage in fight over the female for mating purposes
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Fertilization can be divided into two: External Internal.
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External vs Internal fertilization External: Union of gametes outside the body of female. E.g. frogs & fishes. produce more gametes to ensure the fertilization rate is higher. Usually takes place in water surrounding. Internal union of sperm & egg within the body of the female. lesser amount of gametes produced compared to external fertilization. elobrate reproductive organs; penis & uterus.
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The six stages of reproduction and development   Gamete formation Fertilization Cleavage Gastrulation Organ formation and growth Tissue specialization.
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The stages….
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