Lecture 10 - Click to edit Master subtitle style Lecture 10...

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Unformatted text preview: Click to edit Master subtitle style Lecture 10 ANIMAL REPRODUCTION AND Learning Objectives: • To contrast the advantage and disadvantage of sexual and asexual reproduction. • To acquire knowledge on the principles of embryology • To describe human reproduction; male and female • To elaborate the sequence of human development beginning from the formation of zygote to delivery and growth of the human baby. Learning Outcomes • At the end of the lecture, students will be able to: ▫ Describe the costs and benefits of sexual reproduction compared to asexual reproduction ▫ Describe in details the various stages of development in embryology. ▫ Describe human male and female reproductive systems by looking into the organs, cells and hormones involved ▫ Describe the development of zygote up to the birth of the fetus and postnatal development Two types of reproductive mechanism: • Sexual • Asexual Sexual vs Asexual Reproduction Sexual Reproduction Asexual Reproduction A gamete (n) from both the parent fuses to form zygote (2n). A new individual formed. Better survivorship; adaptation to the environment. Suitable in constantly changing environment Offspring produced by all means but not by gamete fusion. Offspring genetically and phenotypically similar with parents. Lower survivorship; similar adaptation to the parent generation. Not suitable in constantly changing environment. Costs of Sexual Reproduction • Energy and resources must be allocated to forming and nurturing gametes. • Timing of gamete formation and mating must be synchronized between both the sexes- reproductive timing . • Finding potential mate • Ensuring the survival of offspring. • Some females nourish their developing embryo with yolk • Yolk – thick fluid containing proteins and lipids Reproductive timing • allows the male & female gametes to be available at nearly the same time for fertilization • depends on the sensory structures and hormonal changes. Potential mate • finding one of the same species is a challenge • Pheromones are used by some animals to lure the females • Some engage in courtship displays • Some engage in fight over the female for mating purposes Fertilization can be divided into two: • External • Internal. External vs Internal fertilization • External: ▫ Union of gametes outside the body of female. E.g. frogs & fishes. ▫ produce more gametes to ensure the fertilization rate is higher. ▫ Usually takes place in water surrounding. • Internal ▫ union of sperm & egg within the body of the female. ▫ lesser amount of gametes produced compared to external fertilization....
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This note was uploaded on 06/21/2009 for the course BIO 150 taught by Professor Kore during the Spring '08 term at Abraham Baldwin Agricultural College.

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Lecture 10 - Click to edit Master subtitle style Lecture 10...

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