Lecture 13 - Lecture 13 ECOSYSTEMS Learning Objectives: To...

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Lecture 13 ECOSYSTEMS
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Learning Objectives: To define ecosystem and describe the relationships between inhabitants of an ecosystem To describe several trophic levels as well as the one-directional energy flow in the food pyramid To describe water and nutrient cycles in ecosystems and its importance in nature
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Learning Outcomes At the end of the lecture, students will be able to: Provide the definition of ecosystems and what factors make up the ecosystem State and describe the participants of food webs Describe the energy flow in ecosystems Describe water, carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycle and its importance in nature.
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Let us define ecosystem
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How does energy enter an ecosystem? Through primary producers!
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How do the primary producers gain energy?
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The participants of an ecosystem Producers Consumers Decomposers Detritivores Physical environment
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Primary producers Autotrophs ( self-feeders ) Use energy directly from their environment. Convert sunlight energy & inorganic materials to produce organic compounds. e.g. plants and phytoplanktons
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All the other organisms in the ecosystems are consumers
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Consumers Feed on tissues of other organism. Herbivores Carnivores Omnivores Parasites Decomposers & detritivores.
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Consumers Herbivores: Carnivores: ingest flesh. Omnivores: feed upon variety of food source. Parasites: gain nutrients from living hosts (in or out).
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Decomposers: obtain energy from non-living materials and remains of dead organisms. practice extracellular digestion : - cells absorb the breakdown products. e.g.
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Scavenger An animal that ingests dead plants, animals or both Examples are vultures, termites and hyenas.
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Nutrient cycling in an ecosystem Primary producers produce organic products from inorganic nutrients. – return the organic compounds to the inorganic compound to ecosystems. Inorganic compounds will be used again by the photoautotrophs – cycle continues.
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Structure of An Ecosytem
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A hierarchy of energy transfer Divided into several levels. Level 1: consists producers . Level 2: comprises herbivores.
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Lecture 13 - Lecture 13 ECOSYSTEMS Learning Objectives: To...

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