Lecture 15 - LECTURE 15 BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY Learning...

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LECTURE 15 BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY
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To describe animal behavior and the factors surrounding it. To describe several types of animal behavior. To explain the costs and benefits of behavior Learning Objectives:
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Learning Outcomes: At the end of the lecture, students will be able to: Indicate how behavior starts and describe that behavior have innate components but can be modified by environmental factors. Describe the various forms of behavior Describe costs and benefits of behavior especially for animals in social groups
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What factors influence behavior?
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Involves co-ordinated responses to external and internal stimuli with interactions among nervous, endocrine and skeletal-muscular systems Genes to can influence behavior by influencing the development of the nervous system Behavior
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Done on two types of garter snakes in California; Coastal snakes and inland Coastal ones prefer banana slugs. Newborn offspring of coastal snakes readily ate the banana slugs Newborn offspring of inland snakes rejected the banana slugs. Newborn ‘hybrid’ snakes responded more to banana slugs but less than did typical newborn coastal snakes.
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Illustrated using Prairie voles Pair-bonding arises during a single night of repeated matings due to oxytoxin secretions (monogamous mammals) After the honeymoon period, the male and female have little interest in other potential partners
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The experiments….
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Instinctive Behavior A behavior without prior exposure to the respective stimuli in the environment. Genetically based Components of the nervous system allow an animal to accomplish complex, stereotyped responses to certain sign stimuli (cues) – FIXED ACTION PATTERN. An example: human infants smiling instinctively at the face of an adult/ at the face mask with 2 eyelike spots. Face mask with 1spot will not do!
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Develops after birth with the incorporation of information Responses may vary/change as a result of individual experiences in the environment. Arises as the environment directly or indirectly alters the gene expression. Sensory input and good or bad nutrition – typical factors
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Lecture 15 - LECTURE 15 BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY Learning...

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