AUP Chapter 14 (Acids and Bases) (Student)

AUP Chapter 14 (Acids and Bases) (Student) - 14.0 ACIDS AND...

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14.0 ACIDS AND BASES 14.1 Theory of Acids and Bases 14.1.1Acid - base Definition a) Arrhenius Theory Acid: a substance that contains hydrogen and releases hydrogen ion (H + ) as one of the products of ionic dissociation in water. Example: HCl(aq) → H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) Base : a substance that produces hydroxide ions in water Example: NaOH(aq) → Na + (aq) + OH - (aq) b) Brönsted-Lowry Theory Acid: any substance that can donate a proton to another substance (it can be a neutral compound or an ion) Example: HNO 3 (aq) + H 2 O(l) → NO 3 - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) acid NH 4 + (aq) + H 2 O(l) → NH 3 (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) acid Base : any substance that can accept a proton from another substance (a base can also be a neutral compound or an ion) Example: NH 3 (aq) + H 2 O(l) → NH 4 + (aq) + OH - (aq) base CO 3 2- (aq) + H 2 O(l) → HCO 3 - (aq) + OH - (aq) base
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c) Conjugate Acid-base Pairs The acid - base reaction is reversible. For example, HCO 3 - (aq) + H 2 O(l) CO 3 2 - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) acid base base acid The bicarbonate ion, HCO 3 - acts as an acid and can transfer a proton to water molecules which accepts the proton and acts as a Brönsted-Lowry base. The hydronium ions however, can transfer a proton to carbonate ion, CO 3 2 - to form HCO 3 - ion and H 2 O. According to the reaction above, the HCO 3 - and CO 3 2 - are related to one another by the loss or gain of H + as are H 2 O and H 3 O + . A pair of compounds or ions that differ by the presence of one H + unit is called a conjugate acid-base pair. So, the CO 3 2 - ion is the conjugate base to the acid HCO 3 - or HCO 3 - is the conjugate acid of the base CO 3 2 - .
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AUP Chapter 14 (Acids and Bases) (Student) - 14.0 ACIDS AND...

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