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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 5 The Gaseous State 5.1 Gas Pressure and I ts Measurement 5.2 Empirical Gas Laws 5.3 The I deal Gas Law 5.4 Stoichiometry Problems I nvolving Gas Volumes Physical Char acter istics of Gases 1. Gases assume the volume and shape of their containers. 2. Gases are the most compressible state of matter. 3. Gases will mix evenly and completely when confined to the same container. 1. Gases have much lower densities than liquid and solids. Units of Pressure 1 pascal (Pa) = 1 N/m 2 1 atm = 760 mmHg = 760 torr 1 atm = 101,325 Pa 1.3.1 Barometer Pressure = Force Area 5.1 Gas Pr essur e and I ts M easur ement 1.3.1 Example: The average pressure at an altitude of 10 km is 210 mmHg. Express this pressure in atmospheres, and kilopascals. 760 mmHg = 1 atm 210 mmHg = 210 × 1/760 = 0.273 atm. 1 atm = 101325 Pa 0.273 atm = 0.273 × 101325 Pa = 27997.6 Pa = 28.0 kPa 5.2 Empir ical Gas Laws 5.2.1 Boyle’s Law 5.2.2 Char les’s Law 5.2.3 Combined Gas Law 5.2.4 Avogadr o’s Law 5.2.1 Boyle’s Law The Compressibility of Gases Boyle’s law: the volume of a sample of gas at a given temperature varies inversely with the applied pressure. P α 1/ V P x V = constant P 1 x V 1 = P 2 x V 2 Boyle’s Law Constant temperature Constant amount of gas A sample of chlorine gas occupies a volume of 946 mL at a pressure of 726 mmHg. What is the pressure of the gas (in mmHg) if the volume is reduced at constant temperature to 154 mL? P 1 x V 1 = P 2 x V 2 P 1 = 726 mmHg V 1 = 946 mL P 2 = ? V 2 = 154 mL P 2 = P 1 x V 1 V 2 726 mmHg x 946 mL 154 mL = = 4460 mmHg 5.2.2 Charles’s Law – The Effect of Temperature on Gas Volume Charles’s Law: the volume occupied by any sample of gas at a constant pressure is directly proportional to the absolute temperature. Variation of gas volume with temperature...
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 Spring '09
 kia
 Mole, pH, pr essur

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