Chapter 9 Ionic and Covalent Bonding (Lecture 17 - 18) done

Chapter 9 Ionic and Covalent Bonding (Lecture 17 - 18) done...

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Chemical Bonding Ionic and Covalent Bonding Chapter 9
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Valence electron and Lewis Structure H F
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Valence electrons are the outer shell electrons of an atom. The valence electrons are the electrons that participate in chemical bonding. 1A 1 ns 1 2A 2 ns 2 3A 3 ns 2 np 1 4A 4 ns 2 np 2 5A 5 ns 2 np 3 6A 6 ns 2 np 4 7A 7 ns 2 np 5 Group # of valence e - e - configuration
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Octet Rule Atoms combine in order to achieve a more stable electronic configuration. Maximum stability achieved when an atom is isoelectronic with a noble gas. Atom can achieve noble gas configuration through : ( a) transfer of electron ( b) sharing electron
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Electronic configuration of cations and anions (Atom transfer electron(s) to achieve noble gas configuration) 1. No compounds are found with ions having charge greater than the group number because • Stable noble-gas configurations • Energy required to remove electrons is much greater when the ion has noble-gas configuration
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2. Group 1 (IA), 2 (IIA) and 13 (IIIA)[The ion charges equal the group numbers]elements transfer valence electron to form cation with noble gas configuration. Na : 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1 Na + : 1s 2 2s 2 3p 6 (isoelectronic with neon) Mg : 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 Mg 2+ : 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 (isoelectronic with neon) Energy required to remove electron is lesser (low ionization energy) compared to accept extra electron for elements from Group 1, 2 and 13.
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3. Group 15 (VA), 16 (VIA) and 17 (VIIA) [The ion charges equal the group numbers minus two] elements accept electron to form anion with noble gas configuration. O : 1s 2 2s 2 2p 4 O 2- : 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 (isoelectronic with neon) F : 1s 2 2s 2 2p 5 F - : 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 (isoelectronic with neon) Anions formed from elements from group 15, 16, and 17 are much stable (large negative electron affinity) compared to elements from group 1, 2 and 13.
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of different charges. The atoms of transition elements generally lose the ns electrons first. This explain the common 2+ ions for the transition elements. They may lose one or more (n-1)d electrons.
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Chapter 9 Ionic and Covalent Bonding (Lecture 17 - 18) done...

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