The Quantum Physics of Black Holes and String Theory

The Quantum Physics of Black Holes and String Theory -...

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Unformatted text preview: arXiv:gr-qc/0105063 v1 17 May 2001 1 THE QUANTUM PHYSICS OF BLACK HOLES: Results from String Theory * Sumit R. Das Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005, India; e-mail: das@theory.tifr.res.in Samir D. Mathur Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210; e-mail: mathur@mps.ohio-state.edu KEYWORDS: black holes, information loss, string theory, D-branes, holography ABSTRACT: We review recent progress in our understanding of the physics of black holes. In particular, we discuss the ideas from string theory that explain the entropy of black holes from a counting of microstates of the hole, and the related derivation of unitary Hawking radiation from such holes. CONTENTS INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 The Entropy Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Hawking Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 The Information Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Difficulties with Obtaining Unitarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 STRING THEORY AND SUPERGRAVITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Kaluza-Klein Mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 11-Dimensional and 10-Dimensional Supergravities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 BRANES IN SUPERGRAVITY AND STRING THEORY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Branes in Supergravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 BPS States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 The Type IIB Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 D-Branes in String Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Duality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 BLACK HOLE ENTROPY IN STRING THEORY: THE FUNDAMENTAL STRING 20 THE FIVE-DIMENSIONAL BLACK HOLE IN TYPE IIB THEORY . . . . . . . 22 The Classical Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Semiclassical Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 * With permission from the Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science. Final version of this material appears in the Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science Vol. 50, published in December 2000 by Annual Reviews, http://AnnualReviews.org. Extremal and Near-Extremal Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Microscopic Model for the Five-Dimensional Black Hole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 The Long String and Near-Extremal Entropy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 A More Rigorous Treatment for Extremal Black Holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 The Gauge Theory Picture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .....
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