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1 INTRODUCTION TO MATERIAL BALANCES 155:201 9/9/08 Most problems you will solve in CBE 201 will look something like this: A liquid mixture containing 45.0 wt% benzene (B) and 55.0% toluene (T) is fed to a distillation column operating at steady state. Product streams emerge from the top and bottom of the column. The top product stream contains 95.0 wt% B, and the bottom product stream contains 8% of the benzene fed to the column. The volumetric flow rate of the feed stream is 2000 liters/h and the specific gravity of the feed mixture is 0.872. Determine the mass flow rate of the overhead product stream and the mass flow rate and composition (mass fractions) of the bottom product stream. You can take two approaches to solving such problems: 1. Start writing and solving equations until all of the required quantities have been determined. 2. Draw and label a flow chart, outline a solution strategy, and then write equations and solve for the required quantities. Although the first approach will work for simple problems, and may initially seem easier, it will be difficult or impossible to solve more complicated problems this way. Therefore, we will use the second approach, even for easier problems, so that you’ll be used to it when the problems get harder. STEPS IN A PROBLEM SOLUTION Drawing and labeling a flow chart The labeled flowchart for the above problem looks like this: Process unit (e.g. distillation column) is represented by a box. Input and output streams are represented by lines indicating direction of flow. It is important that your flow chart be completely labeled. This means that you can write an expression for the flowrate (continuous process) or amount (batch process) of each species in every stream in terms of the numbers and variables written on the flow chart. To do this, you will need to show one of the following for each stream: o Total mass or mass flow rate and mass fraction of each component o Total moles or molar flow rate and mole fraction of each component o Mass, mass flow rate, moles or molar flow rate of each component Units must be shown for every number or variable. If numerical values are unknown for any quantity, use an algebraic symbol and enclose its units in
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This note was uploaded on 06/22/2009 for the course CHEM 14:155:201 taught by Professor Buettner during the Spring '09 term at Rutgers.

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