Lecture%202 - Lecture 2 Overview Homeostasis...

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Lecture 2 9/28/04 Overview: Homeostasis, positive/negative feedback loops, Membrane structure and Function: phospholipids bilayers, proeteins (channels, transporters, pumps), diffusion and osmosis, facilitated diffusion, active transport, Membrane potentials, Neuron and Glia homeostasis -there is a constant concentration of salts and acidity -ph is a measure of the concentration of H+ ([H+}) a. pH7=neutral, pH>7=basic, pH<7=acidic b. a logarithmic number: pH=(-)log [H+] c. from pH7 to pH6 there is a change by factor of 10 d. from pH7 to pH5 there is a change by factor of 100 e. stomach acid has a pH = 2 or even less f. normal body pH = 7.4 (slightly basic or alkaline) -even a .1 deviation from normal pH has significant effects because it changes the protein structure, and therefore, possibly the protein function g. if you decrease the CO2, you will increase the pH i.e. by hyperventilating -other factors that must be maintained in a specific range: blood pressure, concentration of glucose(important metabolism), osmolarity, salt concentration, O2 concentration, CO2 concentration, temperature(increase the T by 2 or 3 degrees, you feel sick = fever Negative Feedback loops -allow parameters to be regulated to maintain a constant environment; i.e. similar to a thermostat in your house Sensor -> integrating center -> effector -> parameter -> back to sensor (* I couldn’t draw this the way Dr. Fortes drew on the blackboard, as a rectangle, with the parameter leading directly back to the sensor. Please see one of the TA’s if you are confused.) -analogy: the integrating center (your thermostat) has a setpoint.
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