la130 midterm studyguide.wps - Persian Islamic Gardens:...

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-1 Persian Islamic Gardens: Paradise on Earth Theme: blurring what is heaven and what is earth, bringing paradise to earth now, or a taste of what paradise would be. Geography: 5 th century BC Islam and Persia, culminating in India -Underground tunnels allowed air to come in and carry water to villages and cities, creating oasis in contrast to the dry desert conditions outside the walls. Religion: -took a religious significance after the conquest of Islam -Islamic religious creed forbade figure representation, therefore no statues -Water was the source of life that refreshed the body and spirit, therefore the symbolic center of Islamic gardens Arts and Culture: Art of geometric and mathematical precision, as a part of their culture, an exhibition of their intellect. Technology: -All water is brought to the pools through use of gravity. Politics: Many Persian gardens were destroyed by religious conquerers Scale/Composition: -bilateral symmetry with a central axis, gardens divided by water and rivulets often into quadrants -a “walled garden” closed to protect the delicate plants inside Italian Renaissance Gardens: Tuscany - Art and Nature Theme: Relationship between art and nature A theme of contrasts, light vs. shadow, carnal vs. socially mannered, wild vs. ordered, architectonic vs. “natural”. To be able to retain light and enlightenment, to retain leonardo da vinci as part of your court meant that there you were wealthy and a power to be reckoned with. Geography: Gardens were of the Tuscan countryside Religion: gardens were designed for residences and personal pleasure, not for the church, was more secular. Arts and Culture: -Artists of the first rank were commissioned for artwork, gardens, city layout, drawing, paintings. The commissioning of artists was a sign of influence and power and wealth Technology: Miles of fountains and tunnels and caves below the earth. water is the primary theme carrying wisdom and symbolic connotations, gravity fed in some, and also driven by water wheels.
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Politics: -Cosimo di Medici (elder), the church forbade usary, the lending of money for a fee. How were the Medici’s who were bankers, supposed to make their money? Instead, they received gifts “if you look the other way, I’ll give you this fountain for the city” -Statues told stories, had symbolic significance Scale/Composition : - primary axis of garden ideally centered on main entrance of the residence, bilateral symmetry, expert terracing--most of the garden seen from a single location Italian Renaissance: Rome - City and Villa: Theme: The Ideal City - Gardens of the High Renaissance Geography Rome Religion: Rome was ruled by papal powers, pope had incredibly amount of power. They would send cardinals to battle it out, church had incredible wealth and power. Arts and Culture:
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la130 midterm studyguide.wps - Persian Islamic Gardens:...

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