10_pet_en.pdf - THE \u201cLABOUR MARKET STUDIES\u201d PROJECT OF THE EUROPEAN STRUCTURAL FUND NATIONAL PROGRAMME \u201cLABOUR MARKET STUDIES OF THE MINISTRY OF

10_pet_en.pdf - THE “LABOUR MARKET STUDIES” PROJECT OF...

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Unformatted text preview: THE “LABOUR MARKET STUDIES” PROJECT OF THE EUROPEAN STRUCTURAL FUND NATIONAL PROGRAMME “LABOUR MARKET STUDIES OF THE MINISTRY OF WELFARE” No. VPD1/ESF/NVA/04/NP/3.1.5.1./0001/0003 GENDER EQUALITY ASPECTS IN THE LABOUR MARKET Riga, 2006 FACTUM & BISS Gender Equality Aspects in the Labour Market 2005 – 2006 RESEARCH TEAM The research “Gender Equality Aspects in the Labour Market” (GEALM) of the project “Studies of the Ministry of Welfare” No. VPD1/ESF/NVA/04/NP/3.1.5.1./0001/0003 of the national programme of structural funds of the EU “Labour Market Studies” was carried out by “FACTUM” Ltd and the foundation “Baltic Institute of Social Sciences” (the General Partnership “RS Group”), as well as involved experts under the guidance of Dr. soc. Brigita Zepa. Dr. soc. Brigita Zepa, research team leader, chair-person of the board of the foundation “Baltic Institute of Sciences” and a professor in the sociology department of the Faculty of Social Sciences of the University of Latvia. Professional interests of B. Zepa include the following issues: analysis of social policy, ethno policy, democratization of society, political participation, comparative value studies, and issues of employment in Latvia and social integration of society. The following people participated in the GEALM as invited experts: Dr.habil.oec. Pārsla Eglīte, researcher of Latvian Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Economics; Dr.sc.soc. Dagmāra Beitnere, associate professor of Department of Sociology of the Faculty of European Studies of Riga Stradiņš University, researcher the Project of National Oral History of the Institute of Philosophy and Sociology; Dr.sc.soc. Vladimirs Paniotto, general director of International Sociology Institute of Kiev and professor of Kiev Mihil Academy; Dr.math. Mihails Hazans, expert of econometric analysis, associate professor of the Department of Mathematical Economy of the Faculty of Economy and Management of the University of Latvia and Iveta Pavlina, doctoral student of the demography branch at the University of Latvia and assistant of Economic Institute of Latvian Academy of Sciences. The research was coordinated by Mag. Soc. Lelde Kāpiņa, manager of qualitative research and project director of „FACTUM” Ltd. In different stages of the research the following specialists from the foundation „Baltic Institute of Social Sciences” and “FACTUM”, Ltd. participated in the research: Oksana Žabko, Inese Šūpule, Aldis Pauliņš, Santa Lemša, Ineta Narodovska, Karina Koļesņikova, Viesturs Vēveris, Iveta Bitāne, Vera Mihejeva, Dzintars Izāks, Miķelis Grīviņš, Andris Vaitekūns. The quantitative surveys „Families with Small Children” and „Men and Women in the Labour Market” were conducted by „Socioloģisko pētījumu institūts”, Ltd. This document is complied for 75% with the help of financial support of the EU European Social Fund, and 25% with the financial support from the national budget. The information presented here is the opinion of the research group on the study „Gender Equality Aspects in the Labour Market” and that is why it should not be considered as reflection of viewpoint of the European Community or Latvia. ABSTRACT GEALM research contains evaluation of the present situation in the field of gender equality in the labour market of Latvia, identification of the present problems, analysis of its objective and subjective aspects. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used in the framework of the research – interviews of employers, inhabitants of active age and families with small children, focus group discussions with employed people and parents of small children, as well as deep interviews with employers, students and experts. In order to favour gender equality, it is necessary to raise education level for inhabitants. The research shows that it is necessary to pay more attention to training of family relationships in schools, as well as to better education in the field of the sciences and natural sciences. A particular attention should be paid to motivation of men to get education that will help to improving quality of their life and lifespan, as well as it will favour gender equality in a family and in the labour market. There is no need for special activities that would diminish horizontal segregation, because existence of “male” and “female” professions is determined not only by the stereotypes that exist in the society, but also by those are objective restrictions and different subjective needs that exist among representatives of the genders. Inequality of male and female in the labour market that is indicated by the difference in wages, could be reduced by increase of wages for employees in the public sector. Measures that would limit vertical segregation are also needed. These measures include support for harmonization of working life and family life and more strict restrictions concerning extra hours and irregular work for leading employees. Key words: labour market segregation, harmonization of working life and family life, wage gap. i FACTUM & BISS Gender Equality Aspects in the Labour Market 2005 – 2006 CONTENT TABLES ......................................................................................................................................................iv FIGURES .....................................................................................................................................................v LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS....................................................................................................................vi DEFINITIONS OF TERMS.....................................................................................................................vii INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................................1 MAIN CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ........................................................................4 1. LITERATURE REVIEW.......................................................................................................................9 1.1. Review of Legislation and Political Documents................................................................................9 1.2. Review of Data and Previous Studies ..............................................................................................17 1.3. The Theorethical Background of the Research................................................................................36 1.4. Hypothesis of the Research..............................................................................................................38 2. METHODOLOGY................................................................................................................................40 2.1. Focus Group Discussions of Employed People ...............................................................................40 2.2. Survey of Active Age People “Women and Men in the Labour Market”........................................41 2.3. Focus Group Discussions of Parents Having Small Children..........................................................44 2.4. Quantitative Survey of Families Having Small Children.................................................................45 2.5. In-depth Interviews with Employers................................................................................................46 2.6. Quantitative Survey of Employers ...................................................................................................47 2.7. In-depth Interviews with Students – Research on Study Programme Choice Motivation...............48 2.8. Econometric Analysis of Available Research Data on Labour Market ...........................................49 2.9. The Audit of Information Flow........................................................................................................54 3. ECONOMIC ACTIVITY AND EMPLOYMENT .............................................................................56 RESEARCH OF OBJECTIVE INDICATORS .................................................................................56 3.1. Description of General Situation......................................................................................................56 3.2. Review of the Results of the Survey “Women and Men in the Labour Market”.............................61 3.3. Wage Gap Analysis..........................................................................................................................63 RESEARCH OF SUBJECTIVE INDICATORS ...............................................................................73 3.4. Wage Gap Perception.......................................................................................................................73 3.5. Labour Market Segregation and Concepts about Professions of Men and Women.........................77 3.6. Working Conditions.........................................................................................................................83 3.7. Satisfaction with Work.....................................................................................................................87 4. GENDER AND MOTIVATIONS OF STUDY PROGRAM’S CHOICE ........................................96 4.1. Factors Influencing the Choice ........................................................................................................96 4.2. Impact of School on the Formation of Motivation for Choosing Studies........................................98 4.3. Division of Men and Women in Study Programs ............................................................................99 4.4. Students and the Labour Market ....................................................................................................101 4.5. Combining Studies and Family.....................................................................................................103 ii FACTUM & BISS Gender Equality Aspects in the Labour Market 2005 – 2006 5. FAMILY IN THE CONTEXT OF WOMEN’S AND MEN’S EMPLOYMENT..........................105 5.1. Importance of Work.......................................................................................................................105 5.2. Importance of Family from Woman’s and Men’s Point of View ..................................................107 5.3. Sharing of Duties in a Family ........................................................................................................108 5.4. Preferable Division between Work and Private Life .....................................................................110 5.5. Influence of a Family on Working Capacity and Input in Work ...................................................111 6. PARENTS WITH LITTLE CHILDREN AND THE LABOUR MARKET..................................113 6.1. Employment of Parents before Birth of Child ...............................................................................113 6.2. Changes in Working and Family Life after a Birth of a Child.......................................................114 6.3. Returning to the Labour Market.....................................................................................................116 6.4. Actual and Preferable Looking After Little Children ....................................................................121 6.5. Usage and Evaluation of State Support to Families with Small Children .....................................123 6.6. Optimal Order and Duration of Leave for Child Care ...................................................................130 7. POSSIBILITIES OF HARMONIZATION OF WORKING LIFE AND FAMILY LIFE...........132 7.1. Satisfaction with Possibilities of Harmonization of Working Life and Family Life among Employed Women and Men .................................................................................................................132 7.2. Role and Support of Employers .....................................................................................................134 7.3. Offer and Demand of Flexible Work Forms ..................................................................................137 7.4. Offer of Flexible Work Forms in Enterprises ................................................................................142 8. SUBJECTIVE PERCEPTION OF GENDER EQUALITY............................................................144 8.1. Rational and Emotional Perception of Gender Equality ................................................................144 8.2. Perception and Experience of Gender Discrimination...................................................................153 9. IMPLEMENTATION OF GENDER EQUALITY POLICY AND INFORMATION FLOW....159 9.1. Main Policy Documents that Regulate Gender Equality Policy in Latvia.....................................162 9.2. CSB Data Description....................................................................................................................163 9.3. Implementation of Gender Equality Policy in the State Administration .......................................163 9.4. State Secretary Meeting .................................................................................................................164 9.5. Decision Making in Government ...................................................................................................165 9.6. Research Policy..............................................................................................................................166 9.7. Research Database of the State Chancellery..................................................................................166 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................................................................................168 10. ASSESSMENT OF THE POLICY ALTERNATIVES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE GENDER EQUALITY PRINCIPLE IN THE LABOUR MARKET...................................................................182 10.1. First Alternative: Diversification of Ways of Children Sitting....................................................182 10.2. Second Alternative: Increase of the Child Care Allowance for Parents that have Children aged One to Two Years .................................................................................................................................194 10.3. Third Alternative: Coordination of the Wage of a Teacher to the Average Wage of Specialists of Natural Sciences or Hard Sciences .......................................................................................................198 REFERENCES ........................................................................................................................................209 iii FACTUM & BISS Gender Equality Aspects in the Labour Market 2005 – 2006 TABLES Table 2.8.1. Comparison (in lats) of wages of full time employees, data of WIF-2005, LFR-2005, and HBS-2004....................................................................................................................................................49 Table 3.1.2. Employment level of male and female at the age of 15 – 74 (in percents) depending on the type of the settlement in 2002 – 2005....................................................................................................56 Table 3.3.2. Proportion of average wage of full time male and female employees (in percents of male’s wage) in 2005. .................................................................................................................................65 Table 3.3.4. Detailed decomposition of the gap of average wage logarithm, data of 2005 ........................69 Table 3.3.5. Contribution of wage structure of full time employees of various sectors into total gender wage gap (in percents) ................................................................................................................................70 Table 3.4.1 Perception of fairness and size of wage of employed male and female ...................................72 Table 3.4.2. Differences between male and female perception of fairness of wages (percent-points) .......73 Table 3.7.1. Classification of male and female satisfaction evaluation in 2006 (col. %)............................87 Table 3.7.2. Gap between male and female satisfaction with the possibilities of coordinating family life and work with the work in general. 2006..............................................................................................87 Table 3.7.5: Satisfaction of employed male and female concerning their position in their main workplace (col. %) ......................................................................................................................................91 Table 3.7.6. Gender effect and satisfaction with one’s position in the main workplace 2005 ....................91 Table 6.3.1. Working hours for mothers before and after the birth of the youngest child (in percents of the number of employees in each group) ..................................................................................................115 Table 6.3.2. Child’s age, starting from which mother resumes or is planning to resume to work (in percents and number of each group) .........................................................................................................116 Table 6.3.3. Prognosis of job, position and wage maintaining for mothers (%). ......................................116 Table 6.5.1. Allowances used by fathers (% of fathers who have a child of a particular age)..................123 Table 6.5.2. Allowances received by mother and father for the youngest and the previous child (% in each group)................................................................................................................................................126 Table 6.5.3. Satisfaction of parents of small children with the present order of allowance for child care granting that came to force on March 1, 2006 (% of each gender group) .........................................128 Table 6.5.4. Optimal duration of leave for child care, evaluated by parents having small children (col.% of each gender in the corresponding group) ..................................................................................129 Table 7.3.1. Potential demand of flexible work forms (% of each work form).........................................139 Table 10.1.1. Number of newborns from 1999 to 2004 divided taking into consideration actual and possible attending of PEI...........................................................................................................................184 Table 10.1.2. Number of children, parents of whom could use services of a babysitter ..........................184 Table 10.1.3. Unexpected expenses and incomes (from PIT) if the state covers state social insurance mandatory payments for a self-employed person ....................................................................................185 Table 10.1.4. Expenses and incomes (in lats) from the present wages of PEI pedagogues .....................186 Table 10.1.5. Expenses and incomes (in lats) from the desirable wages of PEI pedagogues .................187 Table 10.3.1. Lowest average gross wage rate per month for teachers.....................................................198 Table 10.3.2. Lowest average gross wage rate per months in lats for teachers (since September 1, 2006) .........................................................................................................................199 iv FACTUM & BISS Gender Equality Aspects in the Labour Market 2005 – 2006 FIGURES Figure 3.1.1. Economical activities and employment rate of inhabitants aged 15 – 64 by gender, 1996 – 2005 (%).............................................................................................................................
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