Safe and Effective Nursing Environment Module B Meeting Basic Human Needs Topics: Safety: Risk According to Developmental Level Use of Restraints Maintaining Hygiene Oxygenation Needs Client ’ s Need for Sleep Nutritional Needs Urinary Elimination Needs Bowel Elimination Needs Note: SECE concepts will be reinforced before with we proceed with the second packet (Physiologic Integrity)
I. Safety: Risks According to Developmental Level A. Infant, toddler, and preschooler 1. Home accidents a. In infants, common accidents are suffocation, falls, and burns; infants are completely dependent on caregivers and are unaware of dangers in environment b. Among toddlers and preschoolers, common accidents include poisoning, falls, burns, playground and street-related injuries; because of their in-creased activity, curiosity, and immaturity, they are more susceptible to injury 2. Health education is a must for parents and should include several elements a. Knowledge of the child's developmental abilities (e.g., toddler's mobility and curiosity, preschooler's increased activity and clumsiness) b. Control of environment (cover electric outlets, coil electrical cords out of reach, keep cleaning supplies and medicines locked) c. Supervision (swimming, playgrounds) d. First aid measures 3. Safety education for the child should include playing in safe areas, dangers of playing with matches, avoiding strangers, and obeying traffic signals B. School-age child 1. Transportation-related injuries: not wearing seatbelts or life-preservers; school-age children are active and may not pay attention to directions 2. Sports-related injuries: drowning, accidents while biking, skateboarding, or playing baseball — usually related to not obeying rules and intense competition C. Adolescent 1. Substance abuse: experimentation with drugs, and risk-taking often because of peer pressure 2. Recklessness in driving, sports, and lifestyle choices such as unprotected sex, which are often influenced by the following: a. Feelings of immortality b. A distortion in adolescent egocentric thinking c. A notion they are invulnerable to risks that affect others
D. Adult 1. Lifestyle habits: exposure to the sun, not wearing a seatbelt, or driving while intoxicated 2. Stress-related illnesses: inability to cope with stress can precipitate suicide, road rage, and accident proneness E. Older adult 1. Accidents from falls, driving, and thermal injuries a. Visual difficulties, decreased hearing, slower reflexes, poor balance and co-ordination, impaired mobility, and changes in depth perception contribute to falls and driving accidents b. Neurologic disorders such as Parkinson's disease or stroke lead to difficulty with movement and weakness, predisposing the person to falls c. Diseases of the spinal cord interfere with the ability to feel discomfort and can lead to thermal injuries 2. Change in mental status related to multiple medications a. Older clients taking antihypertensive or diuretics may have postural hypotension;
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- Fall '17
- Adrian Hailey