CELLULAR 3.pptx - CELLULAR DIVISION AND CELL CYCLE Cell Division All cells are derived from pre-existing cells New cells are produced for growth and to

CELLULAR 3.pptx - CELLULAR DIVISION AND CELL CYCLE Cell...

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CELLULAR DIVISION AND CELL CYCLE
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2 Cell Division All cells are derived from pre-existing cells New cells are produced for growth and to replace damaged or old cells Differs in prokaryotes (bacteria) and eukaryotes (protists, fungi, plants, & animals)
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3 Keeping Cells Identical The instructions for making cell parts are encoded in the DNA, so each new cell must get a complete set of the DNA molecules
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4 DNA Replication DNA must be copied or replicated before cell division Each new cell will then have an identical copy of the DNA Original DNA strand Two new, identical DNA strands
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5 Identical Daughter Cells Parent Cell Two identical daughter cells
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6 Prokaryotic Chromosome The DNA of prokaryotes (bacteria) is one, circular chromosome attached to the inside of the cell membrane
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7 Eukaryotic Chromosomes All eukaryotic cells store genetic information in chromosomes Most eukaryotes have between 10 and 50 chromosomes in their body cells Human body cells have 46 chromosomes or 23 identical pairs
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8 Compacting DNA into Chromosomes DNA is tightly coiled around proteins called histones
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9 Chromosomes in Dividing Cells Duplicated chromosomes are called chromatids & are held together by the centromere Called Sister Chromatids
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10 Karyotype A picture of the chromosomes from a human cell arranged in pairs by size First 22 pairs are called autosomes Last pair are the sex chromosomes XX female or XY male
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11 Boy or Girl? Y - Chromosome X - Chromosome The Y Chromosome Decides
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12 Cell Reproduction
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13 Types of Cell Reproduction Asexual reproduction involves a single cell dividing to make 2 new, identical daughter cells Mitosis & binary fission are examples of asexual reproduction Sexual reproduction involves two cells (egg & sperm) joining to make a new cell (zygote) that is NOT identical to the original cells Meiosis is an example
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14 Cell Division in Prokaryotes
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15 Cell Division in Prokaryotes Prokaryotes such as bacteria divide into 2 identical cells by the process of binary fission Single chromosome makes a copy of itself Cell wall forms between the chromosomes dividing the cell Parent cell 2 identical daughter cells Chromosome doubles Cell splits Origin of replication
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16 Prokaryotic Cell Undergoing Binary Fission
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17 The Cell Cycle
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18 Five Phases of the Cell Cycle G 1 - primary growth phase S – synthesis; DNA replicated G 2 - secondary growth phase collectively these 3 stages are called interphase M - mitosis C - cytokinesis
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19 Cell Cycle
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20 Interphase - G 1 Stage 1 st growth stage after cell division Cells mature by making more cytoplasm & organelles Cell carries on its normal metabolic activities
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  • Spring '18
  • Hari krishnan

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