IPCC climate report: humans 'dominant cause' of warming A landmark report says scientists are 95% certain that humans are the "dominant cause" of global warming since the 1950s. The report by the UN's climate panel details the physical evidence behind climate change. On the ground, in the air, in the oceans, global warming is "unequivocal", it explained. It adds that a pause in warming over the past 15 years is too short to reflect long-term trends. The panel warns that continued emissions of greenhouse gases will cause further warming and changes in all aspects of the climate system. To contain these changes will require "substantial and sustained reductions of greenhouse gas emissions". After a week of intense negotiations in the Swedish capital, the summary for policymakers on the physical science of global warming has finally been released. For the future, the report states that warming is projected to continue under all scenarios. Model simulations indicate that global surface temperature change by the end of the 21st Century is likely to exceed 1.5 degrees Celsius, relative to 1850. Prof Sir Brian Hoskins, from Imperial College London, told BBC News: "We are performing a very dangerous experiment with our planet, and I don't want my grandchildren to suffer the consequences of that experiment." IELTS Reading: paragraph questions There are 2 types of questions that ask you about paragraphs: 1. Paragraph headings - match the sub-headings with the paragraphs. 2. Specific information - which paragraph contains the following information? Try an example: IELTS Reading: Which paragraph? For 'paragraph headings' questions, you need to find the main idea of each paragraph. I usually recommend starting with the shortest paragraph first. For 'specific information' questions, remember that one paragraph can contain more than one piece of information (e.g. "paragraph A" could be the answer for questions 1 and 2). Some paragraphs may not contain any information, so it doesn't help to start with the shortest one. Both types of question are easier if you do the other question sections first (gap-fill, true/false/not given etc.). You will then be more familiar with the text, and you might even remember where some of the 'paragraph' answers are. IELTS Reading: finding and understanding IELTS reading is really a test of 2 things: 1. Can you find the part of the text that contains the answer? 2. Do you understand that part of the text? Finding You need to be able to find the right part of the text quickly. I practise this a lot with my students: we decide which words in the question we need to search for, then we try to locate those words (or words with the same meaning) in the text. Understanding When you have found where the answer is, you need to read that part of the text carefully. Read the sentences before and after the keywords that you found. Then it becomes a test of your vocabulary knowledge: if you don't understand the words that you are reading, it will be difficult to get the right answer.
IELTS Reading: true, false, not given Read the following passage about the scientist Michael Faraday.
- Summer '18