11/20/19 Alfred Adler focused more on the cultural and social impacts on personality development than did Freud. Freud’s explanations of personality relied on intensive case studies, that lacked reliability and validity because they were never thoroughly tested. So in his conclusion, Freud believed biological drives were the “life energy” that influenced personality development. These drives could be explained by understanding the unconscious mind, which professional friend and colleague, Carl Jung, later expanded on with his concept of the collective unconscious. An idea of social conditioning, or recognizing the cultural forces that shape our personalities was contributed by Karen Horney. Horney identified three patterns of neurotic trends: moving toward, moving
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- Fall '15