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country profile.wps

country profile.wps - Garkay Wong SID:18616594 GSI Glenna...

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-1Garkay Wong SID:18616594 GSI: Glenna Anton DS 10 Country Profile: Algeria The territory which is now recognized as the country of Algeria has a history of being conquered. It is estimated that the natives of Algeria have lived there since at least 6,000 BC, where they were later conquered by the Berbers who established the Barbary Coast in the 15 th and 16 th centuries 1 . As the Berber dynasties declined, the valuable coastal strip attracted two of the most powerful Mediterranean states at the time, Spain and Turkey. The Spanish-Turkish rivalry lasted for most of the 16 th century, but the territory was eventually seized by Turkey and given formal status as a protectorate of the Ottoman Empire 2 . The employ of piracy as the Barbary Coast’s main source of income prompted French intervention in Algeria in 1827 3 . By 1830, the French were able to achieve a reasonable degree of control over Algeria and begin to establish forms of settler colonialism within the country 4 . Algeria becomes an integral part of France until the collapse of the Fourth Republic in 1958 and de Gaulle’s implementation and support of Algerian nationalism and independence. Colonialism and Post-colonialism 1830-1871 The greatest period of uncertainty came in the first four years of France’s occupation of Algeria. The first three years of French occupation had been marked by administrative, economic, settler and native policy failure, and the fourth year of French occupation yielded only 1 “Modern Algeria” 2 “History of Algeria” 3 “History of Algeria” 4 “History of Algeria”
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a small area in the center of Algeria and hinterlands to the east and west. The city of Constantine in the east holds out against the French for another seven years 5 . In the fall of 1833, the French parliamentary commission decided that the way to capture Algiers would be to overhaul the colony’s administration and make the colony economically self-sufficient 6 . In July of 1834, a Royal Ordinance was signed by the king of France that decreed Algeria as a military colony of France 7 . At the end of 1834, the boundaries of French possession were resolved not by the notion of “limited occupation” but a strategic opening up of the country of Algeria to colonial settlement 8 . The French provide incentives for European settlers to move in to Algeria, uprooting much of the native population of Algeria by confiscating communally held land to redistribute to European settlers. As a result, tens of thousands of European settlers benefit at the expense of Algerian nationals as they move into significant parts of Algerian cities and farms on the coastal plains of Algeria. The Europeans were often resented by the native population who complained of European favoritism, and their own exclusion from political process and denial of basic rights and freedoms 9 . These inequalities did not sit quietly with the natives of Algeria, and in 1839, Abd-el-
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country profile.wps - Garkay Wong SID:18616594 GSI Glenna...

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