NOtes on Asiatic Religions.pdf - Notes on the Religious Moral and Political State of India before the Mahomedan Invasion Chiefly Founded on the Travels

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Unformatted text preview: Notes on the Religious, Moral, and Political State of India before the Mahomedan Invasion, Chiefly Founded on the Travels of the Chinese Buddhist Priest Fa Hian in India, A.D. 399, and on the Commentaries of Messrs. Remusat, Klaproth, Burnouf, and Landresse Author(s): W. H. Sykes Source: Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Vol. 6, No. 2 (1841), pp. 248-484 Published by: Cambridge University Press Stable URL: . Accessed: 24/02/2014 17:39 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at . . JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact [email protected] . Cambridge University Press and Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland are collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. This content downloaded from 130.113.111.210 on Mon, 24 Feb 2014 17:39:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions 248 on the and Political State Religious, Morale on India the JStahoniedan Invasion, of before chiefly founded the Travels the in Chinese Hian Buddhist Fa Priest of on the Commentaries Remit India, A.D. 399, and ofMessrs. Art. XIV.?Notes and Landresse. sat, Klaproth) Burnouf 11. Sykb8, F.H.S* W. Likut.-Colonkl By Sanskrit scholars have sought, in the depths of Brahmanical the political, the religious, literature, for the means of illustrating Our and the moral, times earliest the and social condition it has hitherto minds they found of unbounded looked inquirers which to served coruscations, only poetic was more truth in which impenetrable. enveloped on that has the Mussulman Mr. Watlicn, said, seem, to nevertheless, such of the minds of such they chose have compositions or established adapted, ous supremacy sion all previous destroyed their as well Indians, pretensions to advance. as as foreigners, in their arrogance, the render An or they darkness of documents India ; they or invented, their which an unreserved or caprice, own religi havefettered and to facts Orientalist, conquest preserved, as attested cosmogony; from for lights', and historical carefully in Sanskrit, whose exercised sought for historic found the Brahmans over people, that Drahmans The sway. they fables; ancient that been believed admis selfishness, with respect to the means of eluci In this state of hopelessness, of ancient the India, there break upon us lights from history dating a most people, a wider have scope obscured of action, hitherto the literature will go far the Chinese?which hitherto have we source?from unexpected our and view, our Of possessed. and which will deductions the of that to dissipate value a and remarkable the mists which give stabler our character judgments basis than of these " 1 Frofessor The only ?Sanskrit composition "Wilson says, to yet discovered, is the Raja be applied, trhich the title of history van tviih any propriety Tarinyini, a history to the History. observations This history of Cashmir."?Introductory of 7?)C years has the proved anachronisms thinks 1177 nevertheless [Mr. Tumour modern and it is a comparatively been and 10-Jll years, work, having years,] compiled A.n. 1140. Professor Wilson also, in his notes on tho JS?ndra JRtikshasa, says, "It may not here he out of place and SandracoUus. confidence attempts cm the identification of Chaudragupta to oiler a few observations is the ont.y point on trhich tve can rest with any thing like // in the history of the Hindus, and is therefore to reduce the reigns of their kings to a rational in all our importance and consistent chronology." of vital This content downloaded from 130.113.111.210 on Mon, 24 Feb 2014 17:39:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions STATE OF POLITICAL I leave M. lights, into nal Chinese " one Landresse, to French, ANCIENT of the for speak INDIA. translators 249 the from origi himself:? If the most pure sources were for ever dried up; if there did not even remain a solitary sacred book, written in the idiom inwhich the Divinity had chosen to transmit his laws to men, or if these books not had for yet to come ages issued of the monasteries from and Thibet, in which they are preserved; if the texts in the of the to the period at written Brahmans, language subsequently which they were at the head of religion in India, were absolutely China if it be objected, rejected; mit of the or origin were of sequence are which in their the entire doctrine its original traditions strangers; the holy before words, consonances always are forms Such originals, seats the there yet books mixture to us being to interpreted, be of other its progress, origin, sources of information and the and era. Buddhas, notes but who, subsequently of their travels chief I venture iu the sufferings the Himalaya mountains, to them, endeared by 1The analogous grammatical and extinction. But there less interest and value state of topographical sources come These India moved the travellers, who, by on to Jerusalem, pilgrimages to their Hindus Teerts, (Tirthas,) count the not glory, of Christians and by where preserved.'* Chinese their where character, is the character of these Chinese translations from Indian illustrative of the principles and state of Buddhism in the moral, political, respecting of the Christian centuries vations, the translations by the Chinese, made reproduced and recognised, the legends recover or of these authentic are to formulas, remain most in in con purity, and almost of would the gods, desired in its primitive still of early and it were if the without language, of from directly are of Buddha, and date, word, the highest antiquity, transmitted from the one or saints, discrepancies the Mongols, the national of those recent comparatively in to longer possible to certain and the if the books of the Thibe of consequence cosmogony, introduced; no appertaining their signification; rejected of their classification constitute which if it were names the to understand heroes, tans of terms the traced; being roots the discover of etymology language of religion versions do not per that the Singhalese from to chiefly to to their their braved collect return countrymen1. through to China the sacred to their But pious carries to the Kiblah, the danger?, the pri over and Tartary, to visit lives and India, with the which feeling Mahomedans route, associated being same in the from texts of the scenes miracles of . their religion an ac country, gave so M. Landresse fully of these works, in that of Fa-llian, on which are founded to lay before the but olliers will also he ?(noted. Society, This content downloaded from 130.113.111.210 on Mon, 24 Feb 2014 17:39:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions the Kov'r For characterises to his course Ki the and :?"The language second the of M. period other that work?, kingdoms, to the half has reference publication, other In many re to have I beg of the Buddhist description Remusat1." AND MORAL, RELIGIOUS, is the object of the present which of ON THF. NOTES 250 Remu M. works, to show that the Chinese had learnt to make the tour sat endeavoured of Asia, long before Europeans had doubled the Cape of Good Hope; not disposed generally table manner never ceased political which seemed commerce and to entertain to of Western either the with relations trace as in an people incontes arc they had taken, two centuries before our the part which events in the era, so in practical ignorant geography, to believe. texts Numerous prove they were that and or inhabitants of Tartary the through that From Asia. amicable two those they or towns of lines to Persia. China from road time commercial hostile, In the century that preceded the birth of Christ, they sought to contract an alliance with the kings of Bactriana; and subsequently the last of members the Emperor events these the precious Never of mixed of ambition ; and we see countries seas the and which into mountains and perils, of which places sought by all profited were they communications religious which nor conquest, as is not it humble surmount without admiration, ecclesiastics cross traverse armies, stopped caravan had dared which obstacles, appetite which into had no the those removed the deserts to penetrate, set at nought had and the some of them to sow at a distance will of emperors: of the the were to verify attached themselves j and others they which and them birth, of their in the country faith, gave in the life of Buddha." rendered sacred by events places to which belief principles the visit " most The suth the of tained the is beyond all he doubt our of authenticity that these is that before century circumstances kind of ancient mention, preserves tory it the the tism penetrated prosely that with astonishment, into all-powerful in to far brave to of so rivers and the did conduct gain, zeal Ta?-tsoung. knowledge it is all, the Arabs, by The Chinese that they owe the most and entertained by Buddhism part of the knowledge which they collected respecting foreign nations. the above but theatre; established a to obtain in Persia overthrown the Sassanidcs, refuge with reports at that of which religious undertakings, of the travels of Lao-tseu era. Whatever this are tradition, not extremely all opinion and equally remote his to the west, may be enter as the particularly of credence, worthy a there was periods into China of the doctrine of of reciprocity in the importations and in the propagation beyond the limits of this country Buddha, of the precepts 1M. of Lao-tseu. Remusat divides It follows his history from of Buddhism many passages into three periods. This content downloaded from 130.113.111.210 on Mon, 24 Feb 2014 17:39:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions in Foe its and head before.our tries founder at was, we not could well of the Doctors opinions hists?an which analogy too to or cation, name who faith. He to to from China the doctrines. is removed that lead this analogy communi all of priest, the first Buddhist westward for passes having of China, sovereigns Chinese civilization with acquainted to sent the mis his propagate seat of was the govern reason is every there also thus to first the Chi li fang was accompanied some books sacred with Under him. in the first year of Youau Chiou, (two some other books were taken by I tsun the from the where its birth, had had ti, of the dynasty 3rears before Jesus Christ,) Ai been and Buddhism. and ecclesiastics, was their of independent A Buddhist been between of the Budd constantly to believe influence. to have iu India. in Chan si in the year 217 before our era; which who of which errors, us countries of Han, Keow, base very of permit in two first eighteen and traditional came that believe become by truths to up arrived province, of the ment of of Chi li fang, appears sionary the century the coun exists of the popular belief, and which point, sprung of some to in those and as Lao-tseu even which analogy 251 fifth the of (Lao-tseu) extends circle same the have should this the from far the deny of Reason as well as to the details men commencement the an from already early period dispersed to the west of China, and and south-west era, situated Moreover, the sect which acknowledged that the philosophical Koue-ki INDIA. OF ANCIENT STATE POLITICAL of nation the Cetes1 ; and about the time the king of their country ordered a learned disciple of the named King sect of Buddha, lou, to proceed to India to study the of At this period, says the Buddhism. precepts [verify ?] Chinese historian, the Buddhist sectaries were dispersed throughout same our and frontiers, not professed. not occur fested their known iu be called about afterwards. until years sixty iu a dream himself was doctrine That which may to the Emperor the it was but empire, its official adoption Buddha this Mingti, did mani having prince charged to collect learned individuals iu Hindustan information respecting the Buddhist religion, to copy its precepts, and to draw its several and temples siastics. It Buddhist frequent most of labours search held and priests, and regular the nations of zealous for They that images. was then it in the that returned accompanied China commenced Central their of interior missionaries countries was religion communications from some Asia: ; and where publicly to China others it was to known pious to have in honour. 1 eccle possess professed. SeythiiiiiH. This content downloaded from 130.113.111.210 on Mon, 24 Feb 2014 17:39:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions By it reached India received sent two by from the pilgrims been long it to NOTES 252 ON THE AND MORAL, RELIGIOUS, second century very many Buddhist from Bokhara, from the country of the form religious establishments $ and they India. the languages of taught travelled over the Chinese Buddhist lesser Bokhara; and iu 265 a Scythian, who had collected in the countries of the West numerous holy books, had arrived in China to translate them. The notice which M. Remusat has devoted to Fo the end of the "Before in China had arrived priests from and Getes, Hindustan, to their doctrines, and preached "In the year A.n. 257, a thou tchhing in the Universal Biography informs us of the influence exercised in the begin which this Buddhist priest, from Hindustan, west of the Chinese and north of in the the fourth century ning in crowds around him which he The united empire. disciples extended his witness fame: the his miracles. ran people to embraced Many his by profit a religious and the ma Tan greatest ye and, ho, and Cophene, the progress in China. above Kieou all, tchhing, and, like him, powerfully ence the new of M. book of steps Fo the to extend contributed ho, of thou influ religion." now Landresse from the in ye a native first lo trod tho Fo Sangadeva, the chi, ma of Hindustan, others contemplative in which Buddhism life; and this may be looked upon as the period made to and sermons, which are my He taken. chiefly the of Foe Kou'? Ki, the author introduces notes of says the tra to the clerical that he was "a Buddhist priest, belonging His school, of which Kieou ma lo chi was the head. family name was Koung, and his ancestors were originally from Ping 3rang, in Chan si. Dedicated to the monastic life from his birth, he received veller at the of age three or one aspirant, similar Indian That us that and then ma chi to having initiated iu all a Cha made Fa is Chy of the Law.' devout his imitated or one only or, Iliun, disciple, from ascetic which by shortly, Fa and wisdom The to Tchhang'an it was ; and persons the mysteries or is moral the attracted continually nie, which some and him, a concourse of fou) great came to complete hian Fa been was religious indicate which given lo he names to know him, ' Manifestation permitted which signifies ness of Kieou Si'an those terms, was which when years, of and studies; theological of the esoteric idea. it is hian, holi (now there after he doctrine, the quality or dignity of the final precepts, and obtained lost to the which the or But of Buddha. wars, Samancan, priest received Dynasty Imperial and occasioned Tartar princes, century of our almost its division the whole amongst of the northern a number of proved fatal to Buddhism. At were found era, the sacred texts part petty of China, Thibetan and the end of the fourth to be This content downloaded from 130.113.111.210 on Mon, 24 Feb 2014 17:39:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions mutilated or STATE OF ANCIENT POLITICAL precepts the faith, and extinct, or abandoned, neglected wanting and lights 253 all zeal became to operate. ceased support, alllicted at this state of things, Fa hian quitted Profoundly and land, were the dispersed, INDIA. directed his towards steps those countries his native watered the by holy rivers. Many of his co-religionists joined with him, and in the year of our era 39?) the little band were beyond the frontiers of China. of into the mountains They crossed all Tartary; they penetrated are where of means the chains of the Thibet, By globe. highest cords, and flying bridges, and steps hewn iu the rock, they cleared otherwise inaccessible valleys, and precipices of 8000 feet in height: they twice passed the Indus, and followed the banks of the Ganges to the sea. There Fa hian alone remained of the little band that had set out with him. the navigated he returned He to for Ceylon, embarked seas Indian for Tchhang'an,in three nearly the year after whence, having at Java, months, touching travelled having a.d.411, about twelve hundred leagues by land, and more than two thousand by sea. He had traversed thirty kingdoms, visited all the places which tradition but had the admire Buddhist rendered and sacred, the virtues, above and piety, ' said all, the I he, regular not could of conduct the ecclesiastics.' "But spectacles less gratifying awaited him in his native country. Since his departure, the state of the Buddhists was not ameliorated. A violent persecution was preparing against them in the north of and China, which burst forth about the middle of the fifth century, for a time arrested their progress. were or con to They fly obliged ceal themselves, and their books became a prey to the flames. But from the other efforts, first belief, and to re-establish of Fifteen next by their A.n. the year the originals.?In countries the Persia. the of years to recommence century, means 502, Soung-y Oudyana, the afterwards they were to render back way in employed to China, after Tokharestan, visiting every part of Hindustan. at least the narrative different which time, as a countries, we the are of his and Ming into the lliuan of more Eastern sent western thsang than Afghanistan, ti was on years, twenty Scind, Yun coun and almost It is he who extended his steps the farthest; travels, is the most acquainted of sovereign relic precious an absence to make upon Kandahar, emperor the Samaneen], Fa li, and others, [sumamed tries to study the books of Buddha. In a.d. 650 his seen their popular the authority of un and traversed Hoc'i-scng traditions religious Badakshhan, years new from which extended detailed Chinese authorities. sent mantle Kashgar to the emperor the Kao a contains and tsoung. of 1 10 description of all those with About of the same S?kya [Buddha], There is also in two This content downloaded from 130.113.111.210 on Mon, 24 Feb 2014 17:39:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions NOTES 254 a books, ON of catalogue undertook in travels the the in the tseu, The very he who edited very the we of which mentioned, and of Lao a native of Hoei the of expedition. coun different of we at which to a period the of kingdoms are found particulars relate state the China, have then Landresse narrative respecting of westward many from other knowledge slight in some reflections admirable but indulges versed of Confucius, he was and out upon a man them amongst the accounts they with set priests and books written but as ideas expedi In conformity Wang, the detailed; attention, imperfect to situated M. was lasted, considerable doctrines?those name the more merit have three the was There of Tang Buddhist of Buddha, reliques tree. hundred ecclesiastics, fifty-six most the three his is not narrative tries of it was and But tsou, Latanier the knowledge and Buddha; tcheou, Tai to collect of leaves by the dynasty that the West. emperor for Hindustan written narratives, centuries AND MORAL, UKLIGIOUS, took place in 964 of our era. tion is that which of the the three who, during a decree THIS sources." on the singularity and importance of our finding in Chinese literature these new lights with respect to India, but...
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