(Building Pathology and Rehabilitation 2) Alice Tavares, Dina D\u2019Ayala, An\u00edbal Costa (auth.), An\u00edbal - Building Pathology and Rehabilitation An\u00edbal

(Building Pathology and Rehabilitation 2) Alice Tavares, Dina D’Ayala, Aníbal Costa (auth.), Aníbal

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Unformatted text preview: Building Pathology and Rehabilitation Aníbal Costa João Miranda Guedes Humberto Varum Editors Structural Rehabilitation of Old Buildings Building Pathology and Rehabilitation Volume 2 Series Editors Vasco Peixoto de Freitas Aníbal Costa J. M. P. Q. Delgado For further volumes: Aníbal Costa · João Miranda Guedes Humberto Varum Editors Structural Rehabilitation of Old Buildings 13 Editors Aníbal Costa Humberto Varum Department of Civil Engineering University of Aveiro Aveiro Portugal João Miranda Guedes Department of Civil Engineering Faculty of Engineering of Porto University Porto Portugal ISSN  2194-9832 ISSN  2194-9840  (electronic) ISBN 978-3-642-39685-4 ISBN 978-3-642-39686-1  (eBook) DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-39686-1 Springer Heidelberg New York Dordrecht London Library of Congress Control Number: 2013945790 © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014 This work is subject to copyright. 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Violations are liable to prosecution under the respective Copyright Law. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. While the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication, neither the authors nor the editors nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein. Printed on acid-free paper Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media ( ) Preface During the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth centuries, the centers of many urban areas suffered important transformations that were responsible for the demolition of a considerable number of constructions, giving place to wider open areas and avenues. Also, new agglomerates of buildings were created outside the city centers, leading to the abandon and degradation of a considerable number of constructions. In reality, the way constructions are understood has modified over the years, following the changes in peoples’ lifestyle and demands. In some cases this made people to move to new and modern areas, in other cases to intervene on the existing buildings, or to demolish and substitute them with new ones. Intervening on an old building is, therefore, a matter that concerns social, economic, and cultural issues, which may assume different weights depending on the available funding, the knowledge and sensibility of the owners and technicians involved, the location and importance of the construction, the perspective of the authorities, among many other issues. The gathering of these data will constrain the procedures and techniques involved on the intervention of an old building, which, however, should always aim, in parallel with other concerns, the accomplishment of structural safety and the usage or service requirements, but without ignoring the particular value of the building. Unfortunately, in the past many interventions on existent buildings have been inadequate in terms of the protection of their materials and constructive systems. An extreme, but paradigmatic example is the demolishment and substitution of the whole interior of the buildings, substituting it with new structural systems, just preserving the façades. Such types of interventions are quite invasive and ignore the constructive typologies and techniques that characterize the buildings. Moreover, they may introduce different materials and systems, not always sufficiently tested and known and that can create physical, chemical, and structural incompatibilities with those already existing in the buildings. In some countries, the lack of specific codes for the rehabilitation, enforcing the use of codes aimed for the design of new constructions, has strongly contributed to these results. Actually, there are international recommendations and charts describing principles that should be respected when intervening on old constructions. They refer to some characteristics the interventions should aim; in particular, they should be low intrusive, reversible, and compatible with the preexistences. Although they v vi Preface are not always easy or possible to be fully respected, a growing effort has been made to converge to interventions closer to these principles, which can be only achieved with a proper knowledge of the materials, structural systems, and construction techniques used in the constructions. In fact, the lack of knowledge is, probably, the most important aspect that leads to the disrespect of the built heritage. It leads to the lack of confidence on old materials and induces technicians to look to old constructions not as something capable of sustaining the current needs of people, providing that proper interventions are made, but as something meant to be replaced by a new construction made of materials they know and rely on better, namely concrete and steel. Such perception often makes technicians to propose solutions on old constructions that lead to invasive and barely reversible interventions, and eventually to the near total destruction of the existing building. Following this purpose, the book highlights the most important aspects involved in the characterization and understanding of the behavior of the most common structural systems and materials that are part of old constructions. It starts with the description of the structural systems of traditional buildings, referring to the most common structural elements and to their influence on the overall behavior of the construction. The subsequent chapters go more in detail in the structural elements and characterize, separately, the main elements that constitute an old building, namely: masonry walls either made of earth, bricks, or stone, timber and composite walls made of timber and infill material, and timber structural floors and roofs. In the book is also included a chapter dedicated to reinforced concrete structures, probably the most important structural material that, by the beginning of the twentieth century, progressively substituted the previous materials, being used in many constructions from that period on. Each of these chapters describes, with different levels of detailing, the materials, the construction procedures, the mechanical properties, the mechanical behavior, the damage patterns, and the most probable collapse mechanisms. Some of the chapters also present common or pioneering intervention measures applied to the repair and/or strengthening of structural elements, referring to their applicability and expected results. To conclude, the editors believe that the book gives important information about the characterization of old buildings, helping the reader to have a better understanding of the behavior of these constructions and facilitating information that may help in the development of more precise and correct interventions, more in agreement with their original characteristics and cultural value. Aníbal Costa João Miranda Guedes Humberto Varum Contents Construction Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Alice Tavares, Dina D’Ayala, Aníbal Costa and Humberto Varum Structural Behaviour and Retrofitting of Adobe Masonry Buildings. . . . 37 Humberto Varum, Nicola Tarque, Dora Silveira, Guido Camata, Bruno Lobo, Marcial Blondet, António Figueiredo, Muhammad Masood Rafi, Cristina Oliveira and Aníbal Costa Conservation and New Construction Solutions in Rammed Earth. . . . . . 77 Rui A. Silva, Paul Jaquin, Daniel V. Oliveira, Tiago F. Miranda, Luc Schueremans and Nuno Cristelo Characterization and Damage of Brick Masonry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Paulo B. Lourenço, Rob van Hees, Francisco Fernandes and Barbara Lubelli Characterization and Reinforcement of Stone Masonry Walls . . . . . . . . . 131 Bruno Quelhas, Lorenzo Cantini, João Miranda Guedes, Francesca da Porto and Celeste Almeida Save the Tabique Construction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Jorge Pinto, Gülten Gülay, José Vieira, Vatan Meltem, Humberto Varum, İhsan Engin Bal and Aníbal Costa Pombalino Constructions: Description and Seismic Assessment. . . . . . . . 187 Mário Lopes, Helena Meireles, Serena Cattari, Rita Bento and Sergio Lagomarsino Analysis and Strengthening of Timber Floors and Roofs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 Jorge M. Branco and Roberto Tomasi Advancements in Retrofitting Reinforced Concrete Structures by the Use of CFRP Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 José Sena-Cruz, Joaquim Barros, Mário Coelho and Carlo Pellegrino vii viii Contents Numerical Modelling Approaches for Existing Masonry and RC Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285 Alexandre A. Costa, Bruno Quelhas and João P. Almeida Seismic Vulnerability and Risk Assessment of Historic Masonry Buildings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 Romeu Vicente, Dina D′Ayala, Tiago Miguel Ferreira, Humberto Varum, Aníbal Costa, J. A. R. Mendes da Silva and Sergio Lagomarsino Construction Systems Alice Tavares, Dina D’Ayala, Aníbal Costa and Humberto Varum Abstract  Understanding the character of a construction system is the base of any pre-evaluation process to support correct, sustainable rehabilitation decisions. For the uniqueness of a building lies partly in the preservation of its construction system, this testifies to the history or culture of a region with its environmental approaches. This chapter presents an overview of important influences as through treatises and a sample of traditional construction systems including other engineered solutions from the eighteenth century. The evolution of system characteristics and the systems’ relationships with seismic regions or routes of dissemination is discussed, with archaeological and published examples. The wall-to-wall connections of antique systems are also emphasised to interpret the links between different traditional construction systems appearing all over the world, for the improvement of box behaviour. The debate around the definition of construction systems and their division in categories is also included to emphasise the particular understanding of the vernacular architecture. KeyWords  Constructions systems  •  Written sources  •  Treatises  •  Structural historical evolution  •  Structural vulnerabilities  •  Connections  •  Vernacular architecture A. Tavares (*) Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal e-mail: [email protected] D. D’Ayala Department of Civil Environmental Geomatic Engineering, University College London, London, UK e-mail: d.d’[email protected] A. Costa · H. Varum Department of Civil Engineering, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal e-mail: [email protected] H. Varum e-mail: [email protected] A. Costa et al. (eds.), Structural Rehabilitation of Old Buildings, Building Pathology and Rehabilitation 2, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-39686-1_1, © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014 1 2 A. Tavares et al. 1 Introduction Understanding how a construction system is assembled is the first step towards an insight of how it works, how it behave not only for the loadings and actions it was designed or conceived to withstand, but more importantly towards the ones that it needs to endure in time and for which no provision were made at its inception. This is particularly the case for traditional construction systems exposed to seismic action. The first requirement is a robust definition of what is intended for traditional construction in this context versus industrialized systems, as the former and its structural behaviour is the object of this book. The history of architecture and the built environment is often portrayed as a two-track path where formal and grander architecture has followed a route separate from the ordinary and vernacular construction with modest reciprocal influence. A review of historic treatises, from Vitruvius’ and Alberti’s to the some of the eighteenth century authors more specifically interested in the seismic resistance of contemporary construction, proves not only the deep contamination of the two areas of architecture (the courtly and the ordinary) in seismic prone regions, but also the continuity of thought between architectural design solutions and technical solutions, resulting in concerted choices in each part of the building resulting in a more resilient construction system. The enhanced seismic performance of masonry construction in which perpendicular walls are well connected to provide a box behaviour is a well proven concept in seismic engineering and one that informs most repair and retrofitting solutions proposed in modern design seismic codes and guidelines. A comparative analysis of a number of historic and vernacular construction systems, from diverse seismic prone regions and diverse age shows that this is a fundamental construction detail that found robust solutions well before the development of seismic engineering. The necessity to provide a construction system with sturdiness together with flexural capacity and ductility has led in the past to several more or less “vernacular” composite solutions. Finally, in this chapter are discussed historical and architectural aspects related to the different construction systems studied in this book, with particular emphasis on traditional systems, but retrofitting solutions for the strengthening of buildings from the Modernism style are also presented. 2 Definitions of Construction System The evolution of a construction system over the centuries is the result of a process of adaptation to climate, to geographical location and soil conditions, but is also influenced by past and present cultural background, economic considerations, taste and fashion. However, the progressive industrialization of methods of construction and the growing requirement from society for quality controls, assurance in the construction practice and in building codes has fostered increased control over the characteristics of materials and components used and over the structural and environmental building performance. The concept of construction system has Construction Systems 3 gradually become more closely linked to the definition of an industrial process, as shown by the following set of statements stretching over the past 40 years. A construction system is: • a “combination of structures involving organisation, technology and design process” [1] (Schmid T. and Testa C.); • a “combination of production technologies, component design and construction organisation” [2] (Warszawski A.); • a concept that “must only be applied to identify advanced industrialised processes of construction, which can be divided into three categories: (i) the design process and the management and control of construction methods; (ii) the technical subsystems such as structure, roof, walls, etc.; and (iii) the full range of activities involved in the production, construction and maintenance of all the specific components” [3] (Sebestyén G.); • a concept that “encompasses the activities required to build and validate a new system to the point that it can be turned over for acceptance. This presumes an emphasis on the design process to ensure that technical solutions are based on the functional and operational requirements captured during the analysis phase, which includes a series of tests of each component to verify the entire system” [4, pp.129] (NYS ITS). These definitions reveal the underlying assumption that a construction can be considered a system only if the foreseen performance of each of its materials and components follows a continuous process of appraisal and control from the planning through to the design and the construction phases, and eventually its use. As correctly pointed out by Sebestyén statement [3], difficulties may arise when such definitions are applied to pre-industrial or vernacular architecture. Indeed the production processes involving these construction systems were conditioned by diverse social structures and cultural background. The production of construction well into the twentieth century was still based in many regions of Europe on the organisation, delivery and application of different crafts within the building site; crafts learned by apprenticeship and oral communication and whose quality control relied conspicuously upon the pride, skill and sense of ownership of the process by the craftsmen. A process which entailed the repeated application of “rules of thumbs” and procedures with well-established performance, and which saw over the years relatively modest variations and improvements to adapt it to different environmental and economic condition and client demand. Not withstanding the differences in the mode of production of traditional versus industrialised construction, the requirements that both classes of buildings are expected to fulfil are the same, as first formally stated by Vitruvius: environmental comfort, aesthetic comfort, and durability through robustness. Any system is by definition made up of different components with different shapes, functions, materials and crafting. However, for their optimal performance, it is important to guarantee not only the quality of all materials and their compatibility but also the correct design and dimensioning for each component to fulfil its function and the correct type of connections between elements and components to ensure that the system works as a whole. 4 A. Tavares et al. The connectivity between elements and components fulfilling different functions is a critical aspect for the ability of the system to withstand the actions a building is designed for, and most importantly, for its resilience against unforeseen environmental demands. In particular such connectivity can be identified as follows: 1. The foundations and their relation with the characteristics of the soil; 2. The connection between the upper structure and its footing, including waterproof layers; 3. The connection between vertical elements; 4. The connection between vertical and horizontal elements; 5. The connection between vertical elements and the roof; and. 6. The connection and correct position of non-structural elements such as chimneys, balconies, windows, doors and other elements with respect to the overall layout and the position of the structural elements. These concepts have been codified since Roman times in the western world (Vitruvius, De architectura libri decem [5, 6]) and since a similar time in the Asian world (although Yangzi Fashi, the earliest surviving treatise of Chinese architecture was written by Li Jie during the mid-Song dynasty 1097–1100, it is a...
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