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Unformatted text preview: FRACTURE AND FAILURE OF NATURAL BUILDING STONES Fracture and Failure of Natural
Applications in the Restoration
of Ancient Monuments Edited by STAVROS K. KOURKOULIS
National Technical University of Athens,
Athens, Greece A C.I.P. Catalogue record for this book is available from the Library of Congress. ISBN-10
ISBN-13 1-4020-5076-3 (HB)
978-1-4020-5077-0 (e-book) Published by Springer,
P.O. Box 17, 3300 AA Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Printed on acid-free paper All Rights Reserved
© 2006 Springer
No part of this work may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, microfilming, recording
or otherwise, without written permission from the Publisher, with the exception
of any material supplied specifically for the purpose of being entered
and executed on a computer system, for exclusive use by the purchaser of the work. Contents Contributing Authors ix Editor's Preface xiii Foreword xv Part I: Mechanical and Structural Aspects
Chapter 1: Fracture
1.1 Subcritical Cracking: A Cause of Rock Panel Failure in Buildings
Chau K.T., Wong R.H.C., Wong T.-f.
1.2 Studies on Subcritical Crack Growth in Façade Rock Panel
Using Four-Point Bending
Kwok K.W., Wong R.H.C., Chau K.T., Wong T.f.
1.3 Notched Marble Specimens Under Direct Tension: The Influence
of the shape of the notch
Agioutantis Z.G., Kourkoulis S.K., Kontos G.
Chapter 2: Mechanical Behaviour and Properties
2.1 Modelling Weathering Effects on the Mechanical Behaviour of
Natural Building Stones
2.2 Mechanical Properties and Damage Diagnosis of Natural Building
Papamichos E., Papanicolopulos S.-A., Larsen I.
19 35 55 71 vi Contents 2.3 The Mechanical Behaviour of Composite Specimens Made of
Two Different Stones
Ninis N.L., Kourkoulis S.K.
2.4 Mechanical Characteristics of Roman "Opus Caementicium"
Giavarini C., Samuelli Ferretti A., Santarelli M.L.
Chapter 3: Masonry
3.1 Continuum Modelling of Masonry Structures Under Static and
Stefanou I., Sulem J., Vardoulakis I.
3.2 Mechanical Behaviour of Masonry Structures Strengthened with
Different Improvement Techniques
Valluzzi M.R., Modena C.
3.3 Stress-Failure Analysis of Masonry Structures Under Earthquake
Syrmakezis C.A., Asteris P.G., Antonopoulos A.K., Mavrouli O.A.
3.4 Compatibility of Materials Used for Repair of Masonry Buildings:
Research and Applications
Binda L., Saisi A., Tedeschi C.
Chapter 4: Conservation Approaches, Applications, Case
4.1 The Difficult Choice of Materials for the Reconstruction of the
Cathedral of Noto
Binda L., Cardani G., Tiraboschi C.
4.2 Technological and Conservation Aspects Versus Urban
Appearance in a Stone-Built Environment: An Evaluation Approach
4.3 Structural Stability of Historic Underground Openings in Rock
Hatzor Y.H., Tsesarsky M., Eimermacher R.C.
4.4 Seismic Response of Classical Monuments With
Fractured Structural Elements
4.5 Spanning Intervals: Towards Understanding the Ancient Greek
Optimization Procedure for the Design of Horizontal Beams
4.6 Joining Fragmented Marble Architraves Using Titanium Bars: A
Kourkoulis S.K., Ganniari-Papageorgiou E., Mentzini M. 93 107 123 137 157 167 185 201 215
239 257 269 Contents vii Part II: Physico-Chemical and Environmental Aspects
Chapter 5: Weathering
5.1 Susceptibility of Building Stones to Environmental Loads:
Evaluation, Performance, Repair Strategies
Moropoulou A., Labropoulos K., Konstanti A., Roumpopoulos K.,
Bakolas A., Michailidis P.
5.2 Controlling Stress from Salt Crystallization
Houck J., Scherer G.W.
5.3 Weathering of Building Stone: Approaches to Assessment,
Prediction and Modelling
Warke P.A., McKinley J., Smith B.J.
5.4 Natural and Accelerated Weathering of Two Coloured Sicilian
Rizzo G., Ercoli L., Megna B. 291 299
313 329 Chapter 6: Freeze-thaw
6.1 On-Site and Laboratory Studies of Strength Loss in Marble on
6.2 The Integrity Loss of Physico-Mechanical Properties of Building 363
Stones when Subjected to Recurrent Cycles of Freeze–Thaw (F-T)
Altındag R., ùengün N., Güney A., Mutlutürk M., Karagüzel R.,
6.3 Monitoring of Thermal Conditions in Building Stone with
Particular Reference to Freeze-Thaw Events
Chapter 7: Thermal stresses
7.1 The Effect of Thermal Stresses on the Mechanical Behaviour of
Natural Building Stones
Bellopede R., Ferrero A.M., Manfredotti L., Marini P., Migliazza M.
7.2 Digital Image Analysis Contribution to the Evaluation of the
Mechanical Decay of Granitic Stones Affected by Fires
Gómez-Heras M., Figueiredo C., Varas Josè M., Maurício A.,
Álvarez de Buergo M., Aires-Barros L., Fort R.
7.3 The Behaviour of Natural Building Stones by Heat Effect
Hajpál M. viii Contents Chapter 8: Petrography, Fabric and Properties
8.1 Failure of Anisotropic Marble: The Proconnesium Marmor of
Roman Columns in Brindisi
8.2 Provenance, Durability and Damage Analysis of Natural Building
Stones by Means of Petrographical Techniques
Dreesen R., Nielsen P., Lagrou D.
8.3 Influence of Fabric on the Physical Properties of Limestones
8.4 Discrimination of Greek Marbles by Trace-, Isotope- and
Perdikatsis V., Kritsotakis K., Markopoulos T., Laskaridis K.
Chapter 9: Surface Treatment
9.1 A High-Resolution View at Water Repellents and Consolidants:
Critical Review and Recent Developments
Cnudde V., Dierick M., Masschaele B., Jacobs P. JS
9.2 A Critical Approach to Surface and Porous Stone Analysis
Brugnara M., Della Volpe C., Maniglio D., Siboni S.
9.3 The Challenge of Protecting Outdoor Exposed Monuments from
Atmospheric Attack: Experience and Strategy
Poli T., Toniolo L.
9.4 In Situ Polymerisation with Acrylic Monomers for Stone
Consolidation and Protection
Vicini S., Princi E., Pedemonte E., Moggi G.
9.5 The Durability of Hydrophobic Treatments on Gotland Sandstone
Myrin M., Malaga K. Index 449 471 487
497 519 541 553 565 577 591 Contributing Authors Agioutantis, Z. G., Technical University of Crete, Hania, Hellas.
Aires-Barros, L., Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisboa, Portugal.
Altindag, R., SDU Engineering and Architecture Faculty, Isparta, Turkey.
Álvarez de Buergo, M., Universidad Complutense. 28040 Madrid, Spain.
Antonopoulos, A. K., National Technical University of Athens, Hellas.
Asteris, P. G., National Technical University of Athens, Hellas.
Bakolas, A., National Technical University of Athens, Hellas.
Bellopede, R., Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
Binda, L., Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
Brugnara, M., University of Trento, Italy.
Cardani, G., Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
Chau, K.T., The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
Cnudde, V., Ghent University, Belgium.
Della Volpe, C., University of Trento, Italy.
Dierick, M., Ghent University, Belgium.
Dreesen, R., Flemish Institute for Technological Research, Materials
Technology, Mol, Belgium.
Eimermacher, R.C., Haifa University, Israel.
Ercoli, L., Università di Palermo, Italy.
Ferrero, A.M., University of Parma, Italy.
Ferretti, A.-S., University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Italy.
Figueiredo, C., Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisboa, Portugal.
Fort, R., Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain.
Ganniari-Papageorgiou, E., National Technical University of Athens,
Giavarini, C., University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Rome, Italy.
ix x Contributing Authors Gómez-Heras, M., Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain.
Güney, A., Mugla University, Turkey.
Hajpál, M., Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary.
Hall, K., University of Pretoria, South Africa. Present address: University of
Northern British Columbia, Canada.
Hatzor, Y.H., Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel.
Houck, J., Princeton University, USA.
Jacobs, JS, P., Ghent University, Belgium.
Karagüzel, R., University of Isparta, Turkey.
Konstanti, A., National Technical University of Athens, Hellas.
Kontos, G., Technical University of Crete, Hania, Hellas.
Kourkoulis, S.K., National Technical University of Athens, Hellas.
Kritsotakis, K., Johanes Gutenberg Universitaet, Mainz, Deutschland.
Kwok, K.W., The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China.
Labropoulos, K., National Technical University of Athens, Hellas.
Lagrou, D., Flemish Institute for Technological Research, Materials
Technology, Mol, Belgium.
Larsen, I., SINTEF Petroleum Research, Trondheim, Norway.
Laskaridis, K., IGME - Lithos Laboratory, Peanea, Attiki, Hellas.
Lobovikov-Katz, A., Centre for Conservation and Western Galilee College,
Akko; Israel Institute of Technology, Technion City, Haifa, Israel.
Logan, J.M., University of Oregon, USA.
Malaga, K., SP Swedish National Testing and Research Institute, Borås,
Manfredotti, L., Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
Maniglio, D., University of Trento, Italy.
Marini, P., Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
Markopoulos, Th., Technical University of Crete, Hania, Hellas.
Masschaele, B., Ghent University, Belgium.
Maurício, A., Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisboa, Portugal.
Mavrouli, O. A., National Technical University of Athens, Hellas.
McKinley, J., Queen’s University Belfast, United Kingdom.
Megna, B., Università di Palermo, Italy.
Mentzini, M., Committee for the Conservation of the Acropolis Monuments,
Acropolis, Athens, Hellas.
Michailidis, P., National Technical University of Athens, Hellas.
Migliazza, M., University of Parma, Italy.
Modena, C., University of Padova, Italy.
Moggi, G., University of Genoa, Italy.
Moropoulou, A., National Technical University of Athens, Hellas.
Mutlutürk, M., University of Isparta, Turkey. Contributing Authors xi Myrin, M., Stenkonservatorn Skanska, Department of Environmental
Sciences, Göteborg University, Stockholm, Sweden.
Nielsen, P., Flemish Institute for Technological Research, Materials
Technology, Mol, Belgium;
Ninis, N.L., Archaeological Museum of Epidauros, Ligourio, Hellas.
Nova, R., Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
Onargan, T., DEU Engineering Faculty, Department of Mining
Engineering, Bornova-øzmir, Turkey.
Papamichos, E., Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Hellas.
Papanicolopulos, S.-A., National Technical University of Athens, Hellas.
Papantonopoulos, C., 10 25th March, 162 33 Vyron, Attiki, Hellas.
Pedemonte, E., University of Genoa, Italy.
Perdikatsis, V., Technical University of Crete, Hania, Hellas.
Poli, T., CNR – ICVBC Sezione di Milano “Gino Bozza”, Milano, Italy.
Princi, E., University of Genoa, Italy.
Psycharis, I.N., National Technical University of Athens, Hellas.
Rizzo G., Università di Palermo, Italy.
Roumpopoulos, K., National Technical University of Athens, Hellas.
Saisi, A., Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
Santarelli, M.-L., University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Italy.
Scherer, G.W., Princeton University, USA.
ùengün, N., University of Isparta, Turkey.
Siboni, S., University of Trento, Italy
Smith, B.J., Queen’s University Belfast, United Kingdom.
Stefanou, I., National Technical University of Athens, Hellas.
Sulem, J., CERMES, Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées/LCPC, Institut
Navier, Paris, France.
Syrmakezis, C. A., National Technical University of Athens, Hellas.
Tedeschi, C., Politecnico of Milan, Italy.
Tiraboschi, C., Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
Toniolo, L., CNR – ICVBC Sezione di Milano “Gino Bozza”, Milano, Italy.
Török, Á., Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary.
Tsesarsky, M., The Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.
Valluzzi, M.-R., University of Padova, Italy
Varas José, M., Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain.
Vardoulakis, I., National Technical University of Athens, Hellas.
Vicini, S., University of Genoa, Italy.
Warke, P.A., Queen’s University Belfast, United Kingdom.
Wong, R.H.C., State University of New York at Stony Brook, USA.
Wong, T.-f., State University of New York at Stony Brook, USA.
Zezza, F., University IUAV of Venice, Italy. Editor’s Preface The fracture and failure of natural building stones has been for many
years the concern of the engineering community and particularly the community of scientists working for the restoration and conservation of stone
monuments. The need to protect the authentic stone and the requirement for
reversibility of the interventions rendered the in-depth knowledge of the
mechanical behaviour of both the authentic material and its substitutes indispensable.
This book contains 36 papers presented at the Symposium on “Fracture
and Failure of Natural Building Stones” which was organized in the frame
of the “16th European Conference on Fracture (ECF16)”. The Conference
took place in Alexandroupolis, Hellas on July 3-7, 2006. To my best knowledge this is the first time that a special Symposium of a European Conference on Fracture is devoted exclusively to the study of the fracture and
failure of building stones.
The book consists of invited papers written by leading experts in the
field. It contains original contributions concerning the latest developments in
the fracture and failure of the natural building stones and their application in
the restoration of ancient monuments. It covers a wide range of subjects including purely mechanical aspects, physico-chemical approaches, applications and case studies. The papers are arranged in two parts with a total of
nine chapters. Part I is devoted to purely mechanical and structural aspects
and applications, while Part II is devoted to the physico-chemical and
environmental aspects including thermal effects.
Part I contains four chapters. The first one deals with the behaviour of
building stones in the presence of cracks, namely the Fracture Mechanics’
point of view. The second chapter is devoted to some special features of the
xiii xiv Editor’s Preface mechanical behaviour and the mechanical properties of building stones.
Applications on the behaviour of masonry under static and dynamic loading
are included in the third chapter, while the subject of the fourth chapter is the
methodological approach to the conservation of stone monuments through
particular applications and case studies.
Part II includes five chapters. The first one (fifth chapter of the volume)
deals with the problem of weathering, either natural or accelerated, of
natural building stones. The freeze-thaw problem, which is a special case of
weathering, is the subject of the sixth chapter, while chapter seven deals with
the influence of heat and fire on the behaviour of building stones. The
petrographical approach and the relation between the fabric and the physicomechanical properties is the subject of the eighth chapter. Finally, the ninth
chapter deals with the protection of natural building stones from weathering
with the aid of suitable surface treatment techniques.
I consider it an honour and a privilege that I have had the opportunity to
edit this book. I wish to thank sincerely the authors who have contributed to
this volume and all those who participated in the Symposium. Also, I would
like to thank the reviewers of the papers who assured the scientific quality
and originality of the papers of the volume. In addition I would like to thank
Mr. Nikolaos Ninis, of the “Team for the Restoration of the Epidauros’
Monuments”, who spend a lot of time reading the papers as well as for his
valuable suggestions concerning the allocation of papers per chapter, the
structure of the volume and the sessions of the Symposium.
I would like to thank the PhD student Margarita Satraki for her invaluable help in editing the volume, my PhD students Evangelia Ganniari-Papageorgiou and Panagiotis Chatzistergos and my MSc student Pavlos Tsirigas
for proof reading the edited manuscripts. Also, Mr. Iordanis Naziris for the
design of the cover page.
Finally, a special word of thanks goes to Mrs. Natalie Jacobs and Mrs.
Anneke Pot of Springer for their interest in publishing this work and for their
collaboration, support and patience.
Athens, Hellas Stavros K. Kourkoulis
Editor Foreword The “16th European Conference of Fracture (ECF16)”, was held in the
beautiful town of Alexandroupolis, Greece, site of the Democritus University of Thrace, July 3-7, 2006. Within the context of ECF16 forty six
special symposia and sessions were organized by renowned experts from
around the world. The present volume is devoted to the symposium on
“Fracture and Failure of Natural Building Stones - Applications in the
Restoration of Ancient Monuments,” organized by Dr. Stavros Kourkoulis of
the National Technical University of Athens, Hellas. I am greatly indebted to
Stavros who undertook the difficult task to organize this symposium and edit
the symposium volume.
Started in 1976, the European Conference of Fracture (ECF) takes place
every two years in a European country. Its scope is to promote world-wide
cooperation among scientists and engineers concerned with fracture and
fatigue of solids. ECF16 was under the auspices of the European Structural
Integrity Society (ESIS) and was sponsored by the American Society of
Testing and Materials, the British Society for Stain Measurement, the
Society of Experimental Mechanics, the Italian Society for Experimental
Mechanics and the Japanese Society of Mechanical Engineers. ECF16
focused in all aspects of structural integrity with the objective of improving
the safety and performance of engineering structures, components, systems
and their associated materials. Emphasis was given to the failure of nanostructured materials and nanostructures and micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS). The technical program of ECF16
was the product of hard work and dedication of the members of the
Scientific Advisory Board, the pillars of ECF16, to whom I am greatly xv Foreword xvi indebted. As chairman of ECF16 I am honored to have them on the Board
and work closely with them for the success of ECF16.
ECF16 has been attended by more than nine hundred participants, while
more than eight hundred papers have been presented, far more than any
other previous ECF over a thirty year period. I am happy and proud to have
welcomed in Alexandroupolis well-known experts, colleague, friends, old
and new acquaintances who came from around the world to discuss problems related to the analysis and prevention of failure in structures. The
tranquility and peacefulness of the small town of Alexandroupolis provided
an ideal environment for a group of scientists and engineers to gather and
interact on a personal basis.
I wish to thank very sincerely the editor Dr. S. K. Kourkoulis for the
excellent appearance of this volume and the authors for their valuable contributions. Finally, a special word of thanks goes to Mrs. Nathalie Jacobs of
Springer who accepted my proposal to publish this special volume and her
kind and continuous collaboration and support. February 2006
Xanthi, Hellas Emmanuel. E. Gdoutos
ECF16 Chairman PART I:
Structural Aspects Chapter 1: Fracture Chapter 1.1
SUBCRITICAL CRACKING: A CAUSE OF ROCK
PANEL FAILURE IN BUILDINGS
K.T. Chau1, R.H.C. Wong1, and T.-f. Wong2
1 Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University,
H.K., China; 2Departments of Geosciences and Mechanical Engineering, State University of
New York at Stony Brook, USA Abstract: Stone and rock are among the most popular natural construction materials on
earth. Dimension stones have been used in many historical buildings and rock
panels have been used on the façade in most modern buildings. One of the
major problems with stones and rocks is that pre-existing cracks and joints are
naturally found in them. These cracks may grow after being exposed to prolonged actions of wind, sunshine and rain. Although rock panels are prone to
cracking, fracture analysis has not been considered in their design. In this
paper some recent efforts in understanding and modeling the cracking problem
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