• Produce urine • Regulates plasma ion concentrations • Regulates blood volume & blood pressure • Regulates blood pH • Prevents loss of valuable nutrients • Eliminates metabolic; urea, uric acid, drugs • Synthesizes calcitriol (active form of vitamin D) & erythropoietin (for red blood cell production) • Aids liver with some of its metabolic functions; gluconeogenesis, transamination & deamination of AA CH26 Urinary System
Organs of the Urinary System Kidney Produces urine Ureter Transports urine toward the urinary bladder Urinary Bladder Temporarily stores urine prior to elimination Urethra Conducts urine to exterior; in males also transports semen Adrenal gland Renal artery and vein Inferior vena cava Aorta urinary system: • Kidneys: contain nephrons, produce urine • Urinary tract: transports / stores urine – Ureters / Urinary bladder / Urethra – Urine is stored in bladder until micturition/urination
Diaphragm Inferior vena cava Celiac trunk Right adrenal gland Right kidney Hilum Quadratus lumborum Iliacus Psoas major Peritoneum (cut) Rectum (cut) Urinary bladder Esophagus (cut) Left adrenal gland Left kidney Left renal artery Left renal vein Superior mesenteric artery Left ureter Abdominal aorta Left common iliac artery Gonadal artery and vein • Left kidney slighter superior to right • Hilum : point of entry/exit for blood vessels, nerves, lymphatic vessel, & ureter
Adrenal gland Diaphragm 11th and 12th ribs Left kidney L 1 vertebra Ureter Inferior vena cava Iliac crest Aorta Right kidney Renal artery and vein Urinary bladder Urethra • Adrenal glands: superior to each kidney
Frontal section through the left kidney showing major structures. The outlines of a kidney lobe and a renal pyramid are indicated by dotted lines. Cortex Medulla Inner layer of fibrous capsule Renal sinus Adipose tissue in renal sinus Renal pelvis Hilum Renal papilla Renal pyramid Connection to minor calyx Minor calyx Major calyx Kidney lobe Renal columns Ureter Outer layer of fibrous capsule a
Cortex Medulla Inner layer of fibrous capsule Renal sinus Adipose tissue in renal sinus Renal pelvis Hilum Renal papilla Renal pyramid Connection to minor calyx Minor calyx Major calyx Kidney lobe Renal columns Ureter Outer layer of fibrous capsule • Renal cortex: large vessels; glomeruli • Renal medulla: LOH, collecting ducts, vasa recta – Renal pyramids : bundles of medullary tissue – Renal papillae : tips of pyramids where urine is excreted into calyxes – Renal columns: bands of cortical tissue between pyramids • kidney lobe: renal pyramid, overlying renal cortex, & adjacent renal columns
• Renal sinus: inner cavity of kidney • Renal pelvis (comprises most of renal sinus): collects urine from major calyxes, empties to ureter – Minor calyx: collects urine from renal papillae – Majorcalyx: collects urine from minor calyxes
Cortical radiate veins Cortical radiate arteries Interlobar arteries Segmental artery Adrenal artery Renal artery Renal vein Medulla Interlobar veins Arcuate veins Arcuate arteries
Circulation in the renal cortex.
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- Spring '18