12/20/2019 Printable View 21/63 Slavery wasn’t officially outlawed in Brazil until 1888. The Effects on Africa The region of West Africa felt the effects of the slave trade most strongly. During the transatlantic slave trade in the 1500s through the early 1800s, slave traders in the region took most able- bodied men and women away from their homes. The effect on families and communities was devastating. The people and economies of West Africa also received little benefit from the thriving trade of European products, such as cloth, guns, tobacco, and alcohol. The result was continued or increasing political instability. The destructive legacy of the slave trade in Africa weakened the continent’s communities and economies. As a result, it became easy for Europeans to increase their control of Africa. European nations began colonizing Africa in earnest in the mid-nineteenth century. By the early twentieth century, almost the entire continent was split among the European nations in what became known as the "scramble for Africa." Liberia and Abyssinia (modern-day Ethiopia) were the only two countries that remained independent. The Counter-Reformation: Tutorial 1486 Malleus Maleficarum Is Published Heinrich Kramer and Jacob Sprenger, members of the Dominican Order in Germany, wrote an authoritative work on witchcraft called Malleus Maleficarum in 1486. The Catholic Church saw the practice of witchcraft as heresy. The work then became an inﬂuential handbook used by both Catholic and Protestant witch-hunters. 1540 The Order of Jesuits Is Founded Ignatius of Loyola founded a religious order called the Society of Jesus in 1540, with the approval of the Catholic Church. Called Jesuits, the members of this order converted millions of people around the world to Catholicism. 1545 — 1563 Council of Trent To challenge the growing Protestant Reformation movement, the Catholic Church organized a conference of evangelists and theological experts called The Council of Trent. They met in Trento (Trent) and Bologna, Italy. 1559 The Catholic Church Drafts an Index of Forbidden Books Index Librorum Prohibitorum, or the Index of Forbidden Books, was a list of publications banned by the Catholic Church for spreading heresy. 1600
12/20/2019 Printable View 22/63 1600 The Baroque Style of Art Begins Baroque paintings had a religious theme and sparked emotion through a heightened sense of drama. The Catholic Response The first half of the sixteenth century saw the rise of the Protestant Reformation movement in Europe. The first half of the sixteenth century saw the rise of the Protestant Reformation movement in Europe. The Jesuits The main intent of the sixteenth-century Protestant Reformation movement in Europe was to reform the Catholic Church. The beginning of this movement is traced to 1517.
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