Chapter 13 lecture - FOOD - catabolism - "oxidized" to...

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1 Energy FOOD - catabolism - “oxidized” to generate energy - breakdown of bonds in molecules releases energy - ultimately released CO 2 and H 2 O + energy (& heat) - energy captured by carriers = ATP and NADH release oxidation of food (e.g. glucose) - huge release of energy Chapter emphasizes sugar (glucose) but principle is the same for protein and fatty acids. Remember: ENERGY is never created or destroyed ----- converted into other forms: matter, bonds, movement, light, heat - cells must ‘capture energy’ or lose it as heat (= body temp) • there is a lot of energy stored in glucose - see it if you burn glucose in fire • end up loosing most energy to heat • therefore, cell sets up a series of reactions • releases energy in a stepwise fashion •capture each aliquot with carrier molecule kreb cycle oxidative phosphorylation glycolysis (pyruvate) mitochondria cytosol • allows cell to convert ~ 50% of total available energy into ATP (versus ~20% efficiency most machines) body temp >37 o C.
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2 Production of ATP Cell uses two types of reactions to produce ATP: 1. enzyme-catalyzed oxidation of food (cytosol - glycolysis) 2. activated carriers drive ATP production (mitochondrial membranes - electron transport chain) ADP + Pi ATP energetically unfavorable need > 7 kcal/mole to create as break bond = ~ 7 kcal/mole energy cell_metabolism 3 stages of food breakdown: (food = sugar, protein or lipid) Stage 1 : digestion of food • outside of cell - GI tract • digestive enzymes break polymers into smaller parts (di- and monomers) Stage 2 : initial oxidation of monomers • in cell - glycolysis • glucose to pyruvate • pyruvate shuttles into mitochondria
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This note was uploaded on 04/02/2008 for the course BIO 2600 taught by Professor Vanburkem during the Winter '08 term at Wayne State University.

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Chapter 13 lecture - FOOD - catabolism - "oxidized" to...

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