Chapter 14 lecture - Mitochondria the fuel house of the...

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1 Mitochondria • the fuel house of the cell with ‘massive’ production of ATP • uses a membrane bound system “electron transport chain” to create Chemiosmotic Coupling (Proton Motive Force) • this is harnessed into production of ATP • glycolysis yields ~10% total energy available in glucose (net 2 ATP) • oxidative phosphorylation yields ~ 30 ATP molecules. Overview Textbook repeats itself a couple of times adding depth with each repeat: you should too. Proton Motive Force (Peter Mitchell. 1961) a proton (H+) gradient is established across membrane in a second step, this gradient drives ATP synthase thus converting ADP to ATP Chemiosmotic Coupling: • in animal cells, the pump is the e- transport chain (mitoch membr) • energy is derived from high energy e- via oxidation of food • Bacteria harness light energy to create H+ gradient need to look at Mitochondria …
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2 Mitochondria in all cells various shapes & sizes highly specialized for energy production • two membrane system mitochondria - a double membrane system - probably arose from engulfment of Bacteria - subsequent specialization for energy production
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3 1 Two membranes - Four Compartments: 1. Matrix - internal space filled with 1000s enzymes used in reactins (e.g. citric acid cycle) also has own genome (DNA) with rRNA mRNA,& tRNA 2. Inner Membrane - highly invaginated (cristae), increase surface area, the work horse of oxidative phosphorylation (e- transport chain, ATP synthase, and variety of transport proteins 3. Outer Membrane - very porous membrane porin lets in <5000 da (i.e water, ions, amino acids, nts etc) also has enzymes involved in lipid synthesis and/or conversion of lipids to acetyl CoA for use in matrix 4. Intermembrane Space -very small volume contains several enzymes that use newly made ATP (phosphorylation of lots of different proteins) 2 3 4 14_05_generate_energy.jpg Recall -high energy e- from citric acid cycle -feed into e- transport chain GTP 3x NADH FADH 2
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4 14_06_Protons_pumped.jpg 1. electrons are pumped across inner mitochondrial membrane NAD 2. e- carried in transport chain released energy pumps H+ across membrane 3. several steps in chain, each releases energy used to pump H+ 4. in final step e- lowest energy and is donated to O 2 to form H 2 O. because O 2 is final e- acceptor this is also known as the respiratory chain.
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Chapter 14 lecture - Mitochondria the fuel house of the...

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