MMG_final_review - Lecture 29 - termite completely...

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Lecture 29 - termite completely dependent on its guy microflora to provide its C + N nutrition derived from anaerobic degradation of the wood particles; certain spirochetes are also found that fix N2 that the termite uses as a nitrogen source - Ruminant-Microbe symbiois- food enters rumen (specialized digestive organ) where microbes begin anaerobic cellulose digestion, mixtures goes to omasum and concentrated by water readsorption, goes to abomasum (true stomach), acid kills and digests microbes, next is small intestine for further adsorption of nutrients; CO2 and CH4 are the gas products of the rumen fermentation - African honeyguide- lives on beeswax- intestines contain Micrococcus and Candida to digest wax; Hoatzin- leaves are major food source; contains a rumen0like crop where bacteria aid digestion of cellulose - Newcastle disease- infects poultry, transmitted through infected birds’ droppings and secretions from the nose, mouth, and eyes; West Nile virus- birds, horses, humans are affected; mosquito is the vector; Equine infectious anemia-virus found in all equine animals; infects lymphocytes and weakens immune system; Rabies- found in many mammals esp. in bats, attacks nervous system, “dumb” rabies- animals become depressed, lethargic, “furious” rabies- attack stationary objects, other animals, biting of own limbs - Avian influenza- different subtypes of these viruses because of changes in certain proteins (hemagglutinin [HA] and neuraminidase [NA]) on the surface of the influenza viruses and the way the proteins combine; antigenic differences of the hemagglutinin and the neuraminidase antigens of influenza A viruses provide the basis of their classification into subtypes ex. A/Hong Kong/1/68 (H3N2) signifies an influenza A virus isolated from a patient in 1968, and of subtype H3N2 Acetogens- bacterium that generates acetate as a product of anaerobic respiration; in “lower” termites gut and is part of the process that is a significant global contributor to biological methane production Ruminant- animals that digest food with rumen; includes cows, goats, sheep, as well as giraffes, buffalo, llamas, and elk Volatile fatty acids- a vast diversity of rumen microbes decompose the ingested plant material in volatile fatty acids that are absorbed and utilized by the animal, plus gas fermentation products that the animal expels Trophosome- specialized organs that contain coccoid bacteria that carry out metabolic processes Pyogenic- pus producing Lecture 30 & 31 - Characteristics of gnotobiotic animals o Raised in germ-free conditions o Abnormal anatomical and physiological features Underdeveloped lymphatic tissue Thin intestinal wall Low antibody titer
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Often require nutritional supplements o Higher susceptibility to pathogens o Reduced susceptibility to certain disease processes dependent on microbes No dental caries Cannot contract amebic dystentery ( Entamoeba histolytica ; protozoan uses bacteria as food source) -
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MMG_final_review - Lecture 29 - termite completely...

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