Pysch Stuff - Pysch Stuff Exam 3 Ch 10 Thinking and Language 1 Cognition the mental activities associated with thinking knowing remembering and

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Pysch Stuff – Exam 3 Ch 10 – Thinking and Language 1. Cognition: the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering and communicating. 2. Simplify objects: form concepts which are mental groupings of similar objects, events and people. Hierarchies, definitions, prototypes 3. How do we solve problems… Algorithms, heuristics and insight. - solve problems by trial and error. - Algorithms = a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with heuristic (error-prone). - Heuristic = a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently: fast. - Insight = a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; contrasts with strategy-based solutions. 4. Representative heuristic, Availability heuristic, Overconfidence, Framing - RH = judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match particular prototypes; may lead you to ignore relevant info. - AH = estimating the likelihood of events, based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind(vividness) we presume such events are common. - OC = the tendency to be more confident than correct – overestimate the accuracy of one’s beliefs and judgments. - Framing = The way the issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments. 5. Belief bias, belief preservation, and intuition affect our reasoning - BB = the tendency for one’s preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, sometime by making invalid conclusions seem valid, or valid conclusions seem invalid. - BP = clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has be discredited. - Intuition = hunchish. . bad for making decisions 6. Language? 4 structural componenets of language: Phonemes, morphemes, grammar and semantics - Language = our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning. - 4 structural components = 1) Phonemes: smallest distinctive sound unit. 2) Morphemes: smallest unit that carries meaning, may be a word or part of a word. 3) Grammar: system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others.
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4) Semantics: set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words and sentences in a given language; also the study of meaning. 7. Stages of language development - 4 months babbles speech sounds - 10 months babbling resembles household language - 12 months one word stage - 24 months two word stage - 24+ months language develops rapidly into complete sentences 8. Noam Chomsky & BF Skinner views on language acquisition? - Noam Chomsky: Inborn Universal Language = Children learn environments language but at such a fast rate it seems impossible that it is just acquired… has to be some inborn instructions = language will naturally occur given appropriate nurture… letting a flower grow - BF Skinner = explain language development with familiar learning principles such as
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This note was uploaded on 04/02/2008 for the course PSY 101 taught by Professor Jackson during the Fall '08 term at Michigan State University.

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Pysch Stuff - Pysch Stuff Exam 3 Ch 10 Thinking and Language 1 Cognition the mental activities associated with thinking knowing remembering and

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