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Chapter_16 - Chapter 16 Acids and Bases AcidBase Concepts 1...

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CHM 1220/1225 Chapter 16 1 of 4 Chapter 16: Acids and Bases Acid–Base Concepts 1. Arrhenius Concepts of Acids and Bases Acid: substance that increases the concentration of hydronium ion ( or hydrogen ion) Base: substance that increases the concentration of hydroxide ion Note: The hydrogen ion, H + , never exists in this form in aqueous solution. It immediately associates with a water molecule, forming the hydronium ion, H 3 O + . That water, then goes on to form hydrogen–bonds with other molecules of water. The figure shows one hydronium ion with hydrogen–bonding to two water molecules. 2. Brønsted–Lowrty Concept of Acids and Bases Acid: substance that donates a proton (hydrogen ion); proton donor Base: substance that accepts a proton (hydrogen ion); proton acceptor In an acid–base reaction reactants and products are related in conjugate acid–base pairs: HCl + H 2 O <===> H 3 O + + Cl In this reaction, HCl is the acid, the proton donor; Cl is its conjugate base. Given an acid, remove H + to obtain its conjugate base. H 2 O is the base, the proton acceptor; H 3 O + is its conjuage acid. Given an base, add H + to obtain its conjugate acid. Example: What is the conjugate acid of NH 3 ? NH 4 + (add H + ) What is the conjugate acid of H 2 O? H 3 O + (add H + ) What is the conjugate base of HCl? Cl (remove H + ) What is the conjugate base of H 2 SO 4 ? HSO 4 (remove H + ) What is the conjugate acid of HSO 4 ? H 2 SO 4 (add H + ) What is the conjugate base of HSO 4 ? SO 4 2– (remove H + ) Substances, such as HSO 4
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