\u1109\u1162\u11bc\u1106\u1167\u11bc\u1100\u116a\u1112\u1161\u11a8\u1109\u1175\u1109\u1161 9 - 1 The is a structure found in eukaryotic cells from which microtubules emerge have two main

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1. The ( ) is a structure found in eukaryotic cells from which microtubules emerge. ( ) have two main functions: the organization of eukaryotic flagella and cilia and the organization of the mitotic and meiotic spindle apparatus, which separate the chromosomes during cell division. 2. ( ) is the physiological process through which new blood vessels form from pre-existing vessels. 3. A ( ) is a benign epithelial tumor growing exophytically (outwardly projecting) in nipple-like and often finger-like fronds. 4. ( ) is a category of types of cancer that develop from epithelial cells. Specifically, a ( ) is a cancer that begins in a tissue that lines the inner or outer surfaces of the body, and that arises from cells originating in the endodermal, mesodermal or ectodermal germ layer during embryogenesis. 5. ( ) is a method for detecting DNA fragmentation by labeling the 3′- hydroxyl termini in the double-strand DNA breaks generated during apoptosis. 6. A ( ) is the point of contact, the physical link, between two (non-sister) chromatids belonging to homologous chromosomes. At a given ( ), an exchange of genetic material can occur between both chromatids, what is called a chromosomal crossover, but this is much more frequent during meiosis than mitosis. 7. An ( ) is a variant form of a given gene. Sometimes, different ( ) can result in different observable phenotypic traits, such as different pigmentation. 8. ( ) is a type of genetic recombination in which nucleotide sequences are exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA. It is most widely used by cells to accurately repair harmful breaks that occur on both strands of DNA, known as double-strand breaks (DSB). 9. ( ) is a pathway that repairs double-strand breaks in DNA. ( ) is referred to as "non-homologous" because the break ends are directly ligated without the need for a homologous template, in contrast to homology directed repair, which requires a homologous sequence to guide repair. 10. ( ) is a technique that exploits variations in homologous DNA sequences. It refers to a difference between samples of homologous DNA molecules from differing locations of restriction enzyme sites, and to a related laboratory technique by which these segments can be illustrated. 11. __________ promotes the entrance into mitosis (the M phase) from the G2 phase by phosphorylating multiple proteins needed during mitosis. __________ is activated at the end of G2 by a phosphatase, which removes an inhibitory phosphate group added earlier.

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