1.The ( ) is a structure found in eukaryotic cells from which microtubulesemerge. ( ) have two main functions: the organization of eukaryotic flagellaand cilia and the organization of the mitotic and meiotic spindle apparatus,which separate the chromosomes during cell division.2.( ) is the physiological process through which new blood vessels form frompre-existing vessels.3.A ( ) is a benign epithelial tumor growing exophytically (outwardlyprojecting) in nipple-like and often finger-like fronds.4.( ) is a category of types of cancer that develop from epithelial cells.Specifically, a ( ) is a cancer that begins in a tissue that lines the inner orouter surfaces of the body, and that arises from cells originating in theendodermal, mesodermal or ectodermal germ layer during embryogenesis.5.( ) is a method for detecting DNA fragmentation by labeling the 3′- hydroxyltermini in the double-strand DNA breaks generated during apoptosis.6.A ( ) is the point of contact, the physical link, between two (non-sister)chromatids belonging to homologous chromosomes. At a given ( ), anexchange of genetic material can occur between both chromatids, what iscalled a chromosomal crossover, but this is much more frequent duringmeiosis than mitosis.7.An ( ) is a variant form of a given gene. Sometimes, different ( ) can result indifferent observable phenotypic traits, such as different pigmentation.8.( ) is a type of genetic recombination in which nucleotide sequences areexchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA. It is mostwidely used by cells to accurately repair harmful breaks that occur on bothstrands of DNA, known as double-strand breaks (DSB).9.( ) is a pathway that repairs double-strand breaks in DNA. ( ) is referred to as"non-homologous" because the break ends are directly ligated without theneed for a homologous template, in contrast to homology directed repair,which requires a homologous sequence to guide repair.10. ( ) is a technique that exploits variations in homologous DNA sequences. Itrefers to a difference between samples of homologous DNA molecules fromdiffering locations of restriction enzyme sites, and to a related laboratorytechnique by which these segments can be illustrated.11. __________ promotes the entrance into mitosis (the M phase) from the G2phase by phosphorylating multiple proteins needed during mitosis.__________ is activated at the end of G2 by a phosphatase, which removes aninhibitory phosphate group added earlier.