1.The ( ) is figurative term for a technique that uses the mutation rate ofbiomolecules to deduce the time in prehistory when two or more life formsdiverged. It is commonly used in molecular evolution to estimate times ofspeciation or radiation2.( ) is when a trait has been gained or lost independently in separate lineagesover the course of evolution. This is different from homology, which is thesimilarity of traits due to common ancestry.3.In population genetics, the ( ) is the loss of genetic variation that occurswhen a new population is established by a very small number of individualsfrom a larger population.4.( ) states that allele and genotype frequencies in a population will remainconstant from generation to generation in the absence of other evolutionaryinfluences. These influences include genetic drift, mate choice, assortativemating, natural selection, sexual selection, mutation, gene flow, meioticdrive, genetic hitchhiking, population bottleneck, founder effect andinbreeding.5.( ) is a long term biological interaction in which members of one species gainbenefits while those of the other species neither benefit nor are harmed.6.( ) are the most abundant type of granulocytes and the most abundant (40%to 70%) type of white blood cells in most mammals. They form an essentialpart of the innate immune system.7.( ) are minute molecules that elicit an immune response only when attachedto a large carrier such as a protein; the carrier may be one that also doesnot elicit an immune response by itself.8.( ) is a type of immunoprecipitation experimental technique used toinvestigate the interaction between proteins and DNA in the cell. It aims todetermine whether specific proteins are associated with specific genomicregions, such as transcription factors on promoters or other DNA bindingsites, and possibly defining cistromes.9.( ) uses a solid-phase enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to detect the presence ofa ligand in a liquid sample using antibodies directed against the protein tobe measured. The ( ) has been used as a diagnostic tool in medicine andplant pathology, and as a quality control check in various industries.10. ( ) is a highly selective semipermeable border that separates the circulatingblood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system(CNS).11. ________________ is a genetic disorder that results in the destruction of nervecells in the brain and spinal cord. _________________ is caused by a geneticmutation in the HEXA genes on chromosome 15. It is inherited from aperson's parents in an autosomal recessive manner.