PSYC 213 – Textbook Notes – Chapter 6:Memory System (Required reading ø whole chapter) I.Tulving and the Theory of Memory Systemsa.Endel Tulving: Very influential way of carving up memory. Explored in depth the question of how many memory systems there are and what each of them does. b.Encoding Specificity i.Principle of encoding specificity: The way an item is retrieved from memory depends on the way it was stored in memory. 1.“A critical condition for effective retrieval is the extent to which the processing that occurs during retrieval reinstates the processing that took place during encoding a.Example: Poker àMetal prod or card game 2.Experiment: List of 24 pairs of words that we weakly associated in meanings. a.First word: weak cue word b.Second word: target word c.Shown a new list with words: strong cue words (correlated a lot with the target words) d.Asked to come up with words to pair with those strong cue words (Came up with 18/24 target words) e.Asked how many were words from the original list (target words) i.Only found on average: 4 f.Were given the original 24 weak cue words and asked to recall original target words i.Found on average 15 ii.Conditions can be created in which information about a word event is available in memory in a form sufficient for the production of the appropriate response and yet a literal copy of the word is not recognized 1.Recognition failure of recallable wordsiii.Tulving argued that the ability to remember a given item depends on how that item was encoded at input iv.Episodic memory: The memory system concerned with personally experienced events v.Semantic memory:The memory system concerned with knowledge of words, concepts, and their relationships. II.The Development of the Theory of Memory Systemsa.Some researchers have suggested that in all there may be as many as five memory systems: i.Episodic memory (Autonoetic consciousness) ii.Semantic memory (Noetic consciousness) iii.Procedural memory (Anoetic consciousness) iv.Perceptual representation system v.Working memory b.Procedural Memory i.Procedural memory: The memory system concerned with knowing how to things. Underlies skills, such as riding a bike, playing a musical instrument, or even reading. ii.Tacit knowledge:Knowing how to do something without being able to say exactly what it is that you know iii.Explicit knowledge:Knowing that something is the case. III.Episodic Memory and Autonoetic Consciousnessa.Anoetic: “non-knowing” àconcerned only with our immediate situation b.Noetic:“knowing” àaware not only of our immediate surroundings, but also of things that lie beyond it c.Autonoetic:“self-knowing” àaware not only of our immediate surroundings, but also of things that lie beyond it
d.“Mental time travel” (episodic memory) enables us to set goals and plan future actions e.Autonoetic awareness requires healthy functioning of the frontal lobe.