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Unformatted text preview: MIEJD)IlIEVAIL ILAlrITN SECOND EDITION Edited by K. P. HARRINGTON Revised by J O S E P H P UCCI With a grammatical introduction by A L I S O N G O D D A R D E L LIOTT This mounted plate, from Hieronymus, Epistolae, Basel, 1492, shows Jerome, in characteristic garb and with his lion, perusing the texts 'Of the tres linguae sacrae - Hebrew, Latin, and Greek. His work in those languages, mediated in his version of the Bible, called the Vulgate, made possible much of the literary activity of the Latin Middle Ages. The plate is collected in W.L. Schreiber, Der Buchholzschnitt im 15. Jahrhundert in original-Beispielen, Munich, 1929, p. 30, from which this photograph comes, by courtesy of Special Collections, John Hay Library, Brown University. THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS Chicago & London K . P. HARRINGTON ( 1 861-1953) was professor of classics at Wesleyan University. JOSEPH P UCCI is the William A. Dyer, Jr., Assistant Professor of the Humanities in the Department of Classics and the Program in Medieval Studies at Brown University. For THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS, C HICAGO 6 0 6 3 7 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS, LTD., LONDON Original edition published by A1lyn and Bacon in 1925. Reissued by The University of Chicago Press in 1962. and in memory 0/ © 1997 by The Ulliversity of Chicago W. Braxton Ross, Jr. All rights reserved. Published 1997 Printed in the United States of America 06 04 05 03 02 01 00 99 98 97 1 2 3 4 5 ISBN: 0-226-3 1712-9 (cloth) ISBN: 0-226-31713-7 (paper) Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Medieval Latin I edited by K.P. Harrington ; revised by Joseph Pucci ; with a grammatical introduction by Alison Goddard Elliott. - 2nd ed. p. cm. Rev. ed. of: Mediaeval Latin. 1962. Includes index. ISBN 0-226-3 1712-0 (cloth : alk. paper). - ISBN 0-226-3 171 3-7 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Latin language, Medieval and modern-Readers. Sources-Problems, exercises, etc. 2. Civilization, Medieval­ 3. Latin literature, Medieval and modern. 4. Readers-Civilization, Medieval. I. Harrington, Karl Pomeroy, 1 86 1-1953. H. Pucci, Joseph Micha�l, 1957- m. Mediaeval Latin. PA2825.M43 Winthrop Wetherbee 1997 477-dc21 96-50254 CIP @ The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of the American National Standard for Information Sciences-Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials, ANSI Z39.48-1984. C O N T E N TS xv List of Illustrations Preface to the Second Edition XVll Joseph Pucci Acknowledgments XXI 1 A Brief Introduction to Medieval Latin Grammar Alison Goddard Elliott 53 Abbreviations PART ON E, 3 5 0-450 THE FORMATION O F LATE LATIN Introduction 65 EGER IA: The Journey 72 A Pilgrimage to Mt. Sinai 75 78 S U L P I C I U S SEVERU S: The Life of Saint Martin Saint Martin and the Pine Tree 81 AU S O N I U S: About Bissula; Crucified Cupid 83 85 About Bissula 88 Crucified Cupid PAU L I N U S O F N O LA: The Poems 94 Why Do You Order the Deposed Muses to Return? 97 PRU D EN T I U S : Preface to the Collected Works; Hymn at the Song of the Rooster 101 Preface to the Collected Works 1 04 Hymn at the Song of the Rooster PRO BA: The Cento 106 111 113 The Scene of Temptation in Eden VI1 CONTENTS CONTENTS B E D E: Ecclesiastical History of the English People PART Two, 450-750 THE RISE OF LATE LATIN PART THREE, 7 50-900 FROM LATE TO MEDIEVAL LATI N 123 . Introduction 127 JORDA N E S : The History of the Goths Introduction 130 Attila, King of the Huns Attila Is Halted by Pope Leo in Italy 131 138 A Fatal Jest Gregory Explains Why He Writes History 153 Attila the Hun in Gaul 153 152 1 58 The Cell Poem 1 65 The Poet Sends Chestnuts 1 65 1 67 1 75 223 227 Write Poetry 232 The Books I Used to Read 233 Why I Don't Write Poetry 236 EI N H ARD: The Life of Charlemagne The Saxons 1 69 174 170 241 Charlemagne's Physique, Exercising, Bathing His Habits in Daily Life 244 His Studies and Educational Ambitions His Devotion to the Church Vlll 238 240 How the King Brought Up His Children I S I D ORE OF S EV I L L E: The Etymologies 177 222 225 Alcuin to King Aethelred A Letter to Empress Constantina Augusta of Byzantil!m on Relic;:s Glass 220 TH E O D U LF: The Books I Used To Read; Why I Don't 1 64 To Radegund: On Flowers 1 66 219 Poem to the Students at York 1 64 Vexilla regis prodeunt 216 217 The Conflict of Winter and Spring 1 63 Pange, lingua, gloriosi 213 Dafnis and Menalcas Mourn the Cuckoo 1 62 To Gogo of Metz 212 Poem to Corydon 161 A Poem to Absent Friends 211 A L C U I N: Poems and Letters 161 On the Poet's Love for Agnes The Como Poem An Epitaph for the Tomb of Fortunatus 160 To Radegund on Her Return 209 Paul Responds to Peter of Pisa 155 159 To Radegund at Lent Paul's Genealogy The Cloistered Life VENA N T I U S FORT U NATU S: The Poems To Radegund: On Violets 208 A Remarkable Tale 151 Clovis Defeats the Alamanni and Accepts Christianity To Radegund in Retreat 206 A Royal Wooing 1 49 Gregory Confesses His Faith and Deplores His Ignorance The Founding of Lyons 204 Emperor Tiberius Constantinus and the Treasure of Narses 146 GRE G ORY OF TO URS: The Histories 202 How the Lombards Came To Italy 1 43 145 The Jealousy of the Serpent Night 201 Alboin, the Huns, and the Gepidae (c. 567) AVI Tus: A Poem on the Events of Mosaic History GRE G ORY I: Letters 1 99 The Maelstrom 141 To Absent Agnes 198 The Seven Sleepers 140 Philosophy Talks to Boethius Paradise 1 97 The Poems B O E THI U S: The Consolation of Philosophy Metron 1.7 1 93 PAU L T H E D E A C O N: The History of the Lombards; 1 34 The Death o f Attila 1 79 181 The Martyrdom of Saint Alban 246 IX 245 243 205 C O NTENTS CONTENTS ERM O L D U S N I G E L LU S: In Honor of Louis the Pious 256 To A Friend To Samuel 327 Liutprand Is Received in Constantinople as an Envoy of Berengar 11 Shoddy Imperialism 335 337 Liutprand's Farewell to Constantinople 261 The Persistence of the Gardener 333 Some Prophecies and Their Interpretations 260 262 339 WI D UKI N D O F C O RVEY: The History of the Saxons J O H N S C OT T U S ER I U G E NA: On the Division of Nature 264 271 D H U O D A: Manual for My Son 276 A Hard Journey in Pursuit of Learning 277 Dulcitius S E D U L I U S S C O T T U S : On Christian Leadership; To Bishop Hartgar; 280 To Bishop Franco PART FOUR, 383 Notker's Encounter With the Devil 385 Heribald and the Hungarian Invasion The Duchess Hadwig at Her Morning Lesson with Ekkehard N O TKE R BA L B U LU S: Sequence for Saint Laurence; Martyrology for 300 A Sequence for Saint Laurence The Story of the Martyrdom of Saint Laurence GERALD: The Poem on Waiter Attila Discovers the Flight of the Hostages Walter Defeats His Opponents 312 315 316 LI U T P R A N D O F C R E M O NA: Antapodosis; Mission 319 x Carmen 10: The Nightingale 400 Carmen 1 1 : The Otto Melody Carmen 15: A Clever Liar 402 404 Carmen 17: Lament for the Death of Henry 11 ( 1 024 C.E.) 317 A Joking Emperor and a Shrewd Soldier 393 T H E CAM B R I D G E S O N G S 398 310 WaIter and Hildegund Come to An Understanding 391 The Norsemen Discover America 304 321 389 A DA M O F BREM EN: A Description of the Islands of the North 302 377 379 Three Friends and a Telltale 900- 1 1 00 293 to Constantinople 373 EKKEHARD IV O F ST. GA L L: The History of St. Gall THE RISE OF MEDIEV A L LATIN The Battle Continues 366 368 A Miracle Play on Saint Nicholas 284 On the Coming of Bishop Franco Saint Laurence M E D I EVA L LAT I N R E L I G I O U S D R A M A: A Mystery Play on the A Mystery Play on the Resurrection 282 To Bishop Hartgar 352 354 Resurrection; A Miracle Play on Saint Nicholas 281 How to Be a Just Judge 346 HRO T S V I TA O F GAN D E R S H E I M: Dulcitius 278 On Loving God 343 344 Verdun in the Tenth Century The Prologue to the Manual The Preface to the Manual 342 R I C H E R O F ST. R E MY: The History of France 273 An Opening Acrostic 340 341 A Fire Test Convinces the Danes 267 An Elusive Category A Brave Saxon Leads His Countrymen to Victory Shrewd Methods of Petty Warfare 266 On the Division of Nature 328 329 Liutprand's Reception in Constantinople 258 258 WA LAH F R I D STRA B O: On Horticulture Introduction 325 Emperor Romanus I and the Palace at Constantinople 257 A Prayer 324 The Death of Conrad I The Assassination of King Berengarius I HRA B A N U S M AuRus: Poems Lilies 247 249 The Siege of Barcelona Carmen 23: A Song for Summer 407 Carmen 24: The Bishop and the Braggart Carmen 35: The Priest and the Wolf Carmen 42: The Lazy Abbot 410 Xl 409 408 405 CONTENTS CONTENTS PETER DAM I AN: Poem on the Joy of Paradise The Joy of Paradise 414 P A RT FIVE, 427 To Mary, When the Mind Is Troubled by Fear 432 434 G R E G O RY VII: A Letter to Emperor Henry IV A Letter to Emperor Henry IV: 8 January 1076 Selections from the Life of Alexander the Great Alexander in India 455 437 Captured Jerusalem B E RNAR D O F C LA I RVAU X: The Steps of Humility; Advice to Pope 448 A Goliardic Confession 556 558 566 TH E A R C H P O E T: Confession 568 Harmony of Celestial Revelations 462 469 W I L L I A M O F M A L M E S B U RY: The Deeds of the Kings 473 The Magnanimity of William Rufus 474 Other Examples of the King's Magnanimity 474 F U L C H E R O F C HA RT R E S : A History of the Expedition 478 The Crusaders Capture Jerusalem Vespers; Lament of Dinah 489 The History of My Misfortunes 492 Hymn for Vespers on the Sabbath 499 575 Carmen 12 577 Carmen 3 575 Carmen 4 575 Carmen 17 Carmen 1 9 577 578 Carmen 5 576 Carmen 21 579 Carmen 7 576 Carmen 23 580 Carmen 1 0 576 Carmen 64 581 Carmen 1 1 577 TH E S O N G S OF B E U ERN Carmen 1 7 590 Carmen 2 4 591 Carmen 130 597 Carmen 51a 591 Carmen 1 74 598 592 Carmen 186 598 G E O F F REY O F M ONMO UTH: The History of the Kings 514 The Beginning of "Waesseil" in England 517 Burnellus Arrives in Paris and Joins the University Sequence on the Resurrection of the Lord 523 Sequence on the Ascension of the Lord 525 XII Burnellus Bemoans His Inability to Learn 520 A D A M O F ST. VI C T O R: Sequences on Christ The Lament of Nature 604 607 Against Claudian N I G E L WHITEACRE: The Mirror of Fools 518 The Coronation Games and Sports 596 Carmen 72 594 A L AN O F LI L LE: The Lament of Nature; Against Claudian 504 506 The Coronation o f King Arthur 583 586 Carmen 1 1 8 Carmen 62 500 572 Carmen 2 The Seventh Vision of the Second Part 480 PETER ABE LARD: The History of My Misfortunes; Hymn for of Britain 545 and Exhorations H I L D E G ARD O F B ING EN: Know the Way; The Symphony of The Discovery of the Holy Spear H E L O I S E: Letter to Abelard 544 This Fleeting World, The Judgment, Heaven, Hell, Warnings, Advice to Pope Eugenius 460 The Virtue of the Holy Spear Letter to Abelard 542 Eugenius 554 The Steps of Humility: The Rapture of Saint Paul RAY M OND O F AG U I LERS: The History of the Franks Who Lament of Dinah An Aspect of Creation 538 540 439 TH E A LEXAND E R ROMANC E S 446 to Jerusalem An Aspect of the Cosmos B E RNAR D O F M O R LAS: The Contempt of the World SA INT ANS E LM: The Prayer to the Virgin Mary of England 530 B E RNA R D U S S I LV E S TR I S: The Cosmography IIOO-I 3 5 0 VARIETIES O F MEDlEV AL LATIN Introduction 528 N I VA R D U S: Ysengrimus Reynard Takes Ysengrimus Fishing 416 521 JO HN O F H AU V I L LE: The Arch Weeper The Power of Nature 623 A Description of the Girl 624 Xlll 614 616 618 621 602 LIST O F I L LUSTRAT I O N S CONTENTS 625 The Wretched Life of the Scholar 627 The Mount of Ambition Plato's Oration on Envy 628 Boethius' Oration on the Harshness of Rulers Nature's Speech on the Universe 629 630 WALTER OF C H ATI L L ON: The Alexandreis The Alexandreis 637 WALTER M A P: The Courtiers' Trifles A Faithful Knight Templar 639 Royal Ways and Royal Sayings • 644 646 The Aftermath of the Riot 649 The King Speaks Harshly to Leicester 650 SAINT B O NAVENTURE: Commentary on the Gospel of Luke; The 652 Life of Saint Francis of Assisi Commentary on Luke 1 9.28 The Life of Saint Francis 655 656 ROGER BAC ON: The Greater Work The Four Grounds of Error Index 662 664 The Importance of Language Study 671 XIV From Special Collections, John Hay Library, Brown University Frontispiece: jerome, in characteristic garb and with his lion, perusing the texts of the tres linguae sacrae 639 M ATTHEW PARIS: The Major Chronicle A Riot at Oxford 632 633 665 1 . Cristoforo Landino, ed., Horace, Opera, Florence, 1482 2. Horace, Opera, Latin manuscript on paper, 1466 3. Claudius Ptolemaeus, Geographia, Rome, 1490 4. Boethius, De Consolatione Philosophiae, Latin manuscript on parchment, Italy, c. 1350 5 . Boethius, De Arithmetica, Latin manuscript on paper, Italy, c . 1390 6. Hymnary (with Ambrose, "Deus Creator Omnium"), Single folio on parchment, after 1 100 7. Hymnary, single folio on parchment, after 1 100 8. Carolingian manuscript (Pseudo-Theodulf), Single folio on parchment, after 900 9. Book of Numbers, c. 825, single folio on parchment 10. Hymnary (with neumes), loose folios on parchment, after 1 100 1 1 . Hymnary (with neumes), loose folios on parchment, after 1 100 12. Hymnary (with neumes), single folio on parchment, after 1000; from the binding of Quadragesimale doctoris illuminati Francisci Nayronis, Italy, 1491 13. Anonymous, De viris illustribus urbis Romae, Latin manuscript on parchment, Italy, c. 1400 14. Breviary, Latin manuscript on parchment, sixteenth century 15. Breviary, Latin manuscript on parchment, sixteenth century 16. Hymnary, single folio on parchment, eleventh century 1 7. Book of Sermons, French manuscript on paper, fifteenth century 18. Augustinian decretals, Latin manuscript on parchment, fifteenth century 19. Psalter, Latin manuscript on parchment, late fourteenth century 20. Book of Hours, Latin manuscript on parchment, late thirteenth century 21. Book of Hours, Latin manuscript on parchment, late fourteenth century 22. Book of Hours, Latin manuscript on parchment, late fourteenth century XV 58 62 70 118 136 186 1 90 230 254 286 290 298 308 350 364 396 412 420 424 430 444 458 PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION LIST OF l LLUSTRA nONS 23. Book of Hours, Latin manuscript on parchment, fifteenth century 24. Book of Hours, Latin and French manuscript on parchment, fifteenth century 25. Book of Hours, Latin and French manuscript on parchment, fifteenth century 2 6 . Anonymous, Vie de Jesus Christ, French manuscript o n paper, c. 1450 27. Book of Hours, Flemish manuscript on parchment, fifteenth century 28. Book of Hours, Flemish manuscript on parchment, fifteenth century 29. Les heures de notre dame en francois, manuscript on paper, fifteenth century 30. Robert Grosseteste, Computus, Latin manuscript on paper, Italy, c. 1390 3 1 . Leonardo Fibonacci da Pisa, Liber {los, Latin manuscript on paper, Italy, c. 1 390 32. Loose Hornbook Insert; Paper, fifteenth century 476 502 512 526 552 564 600 P. Harrington aimed in Mediaeval Latin to expose as wide an audience as Kpossible to the breadth and depth of post-Imperial Latin language and litera­ ture. He made no distinction between what we now call Late, Medieval, and Neo­ 642 Latin, choosing to allow the larger picture of his topic to dominate the details. 660 668 have tried, therefore, to improve on the depth of coverage, adding selections from My aim in revising Mediaeval Latin has been to play to the work's strengths. I the fourth, ninth, and twelfth centuries; and I have more than doubled the selec­ tions by women writers. Fully one quarter of the selections have been expanded. I have played to the goal of depth also by eliminating those selections written after the thirteenth century. An anthology that stretches from the fourth to the seventeenth century was perhaps a good thing when Mediaeval Latin was pub­ lished, in 1 925. Today, however, at century's end, it only reinforces the notion that all of the Latin literature written after the "golden age" of early imperial Rome is easily categorized-and, therefore, dismissed. In any case, there is no need to justify the revision of a work that has not been remade since its original publica­ tion seventy-two years ago. Generations of students have learned what Medieval Latin they know out of Harrington and a revision on this score was long overdue, both as a service to its students and in order to make the book a competent wit­ ness to the vast and increasingly active fields of Late and Medieval Latin philology. The book has been recast from top to bottom. A new grammatical introduc­ tion, written by the late Alison Goddard Elliott, has been included, which makes up in substance and detail for the brevity of the original grammatical notes. I have retained Harrington's organization, choosing to focus on authors and works, but I have divided my revision into five parts and have included a brief introductory essay for each, which establishes the wider context in which the authors and works function. The headnotes have been completely recast, with the aim of mak­ ing each piece interconnected with neighboring ones, so that students can gain a sense of the coherence of the Latin tradition to which the selections at any given point speak. The headnotes are contextual and interpretive essays. They attempt to set the writer in his or her literary context, to state something of the life of the writer, so far as it is known, to comment specifically on the history, themes, and Latinity of the work in question, and to lead interested readers to further sources. To this end, I have recast Harrington's original bibliographic paragraphs, making XVI XVll P R E F A C E TO T H E S E C O N D E DITION J O S E P H P U C CI his sometimes brief and obscure comments into more complete essays. But I have limited myself to an accounting of primary materials-editions, commentaries, concordances and, where applicable, standard English translations, citing second­ ary works, with the exception of standard surveys, only in rare instances. All the selections have been reprinted from the best modern editions. I have resisted the temptation to standardize orthography. This revision has been written in the belief-surely accurate-that the study of Late and Medieval Latin begins from a classical base. Thus, I have tried to keep sense of the urgency of the moment, suggesting anew that the time has come to work on the Latin materials of many centuries; that the narrow disciplinary pro­ tocols of the nineteenth century will no longer do on the eve of the twenty-first century; that there are good institutional and pedagogical reasons to expand our knowledge of, and interest in, the versions of Latin written between the fourth and the fourteenth centuries. If students can assent to these views after they use this revision, then I will feel that in some small way it has been received-and used-successfully. in mind the classically oriented student coming to Late and Medieval Latin for the first time. In the notes, therefore, I have assumed only a standard knowledge of classical grammar, syntax, and orthography. Hence many of the notes attend to divergences in Medieval Latin from classical norms, particularly where orthog­ raphy is concerned. Any form, therefore, that is not classical has been glossed in its classical form. These glosses should not be understood to implicate me in an attempt to sanitize Medieval Latin into some approximate form of Classical Latin. I have glossed all words that are not listed in John C. Traupman, The New College Latin and English Dictionary (New York, 1 966, rev. 1 995). I recommend this excellent paperback dictionary, recently updated, for students using this revi­ sion. It possesses the merits of compactness, affordability, and accuracy. Where a form does not appear in Traupman, I have cited at least one alternate lexical authority for the preferred usage. I have generally avoided in the notes scholarly commentary or controversy. Readers who wish to engage in such dialogues can refer to the bibliographic paragraphs for further reading on given authors and works. The illustrations originally printed in Mediaeval Latin, which tended to be grainy and indistin...
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