Unformatted text preview: Chapter 6 The Duel for North America, 1608-1763 In the late 1600's and early 1700's, Spain, England, and France fought over territory in North America.
The four big wars were: King William's War, Queen Anne's War, King George's War, and the French and
France Finds a Foothold in Canada
In 1598, the Edict of Nantes was issued by the crown of France. It granted limited religious freedom to
French Protestants, and stopped religious wars between the Protestants and Catholics.
In 1608, France established Quebec. The leading figure was Samuel de Champlain, an intrepid soldier
and explorer whose energy and leadership earned him the title "Father of New France".
The government of New France (Canada) was under direct control of the king. The people did not elect
any representative assemblies.
New France Sets Out
New France contained one valuable resource - beaver.
French Catholic missionaries, notably the Jesuits, tried to convert the Indians to Christianity and to save
them from the fur trappers.
Antoine Cadillac- founded Detroit in 1701 to thwart English settlers from pushing into the Ohio Valley.
Robert de La Salle- explored the Mississippi and Gulf basin, naming it Louisiana.
In order to block the Spanish at the Gulf of Mexico, the French placed several fortifications in Mississippi
and Louisiana. The French founded New Orleans in 1718.
Illinois became France's garden empire of North America because much grain was produced there.
The Clash of Empires
The early battles between the Europeans for control over North America were mostly between British and
French colonists. At this time, neither European power saw North America as a place worth devoting
significant military resources. The British colonists referred to these conflicts as K
ing William's War
(1689-1697) and Queen Anne's War (1702-1713). The wars ended in 1713 with peace terms signed at
Utrecht. France was terribly beaten in these conflicts, and Britain received French-populated Acadia and
Newfoundland and the Hudson Bay. The British also won limited trading rights in Spanish America.
The War of Jenkins's Ear started in 1739 between the British and Spanish. This small battle became a
war and became known as King George's War in America. It ended in 1748 with a treaty that handed
Louisbourg back to France (allied with Spain), enraging the victorious New Englanders.
George Washington Inaugurates War with France
In 1754, George Washington was sent to the Ohio Valley to secure land that had been purchased by
some Virginians. His 150 Virginian militia killed the French leader, causing French reinforcements to
come. The Virginians were forced to surrender on July 4, 1754.
The increase in conflict caused the British in Nova Scotia to worry that the French in Acadia would attack
them. So in 1755, the British in Nova Scotia attacked and defeated the French Acadians and scattered
them as far as Louisiana.
Global War and Colonial Disunity
The French and Indian War started in 1754. It was the American theater of the Seven Years' War. This
war was fought in America, Europe, the West Indies, the Philippines, Africa, and on the ocean. In Europe, the principal adversaries were Britain and Prussia on one side. France, Spain, Austria, and
Russia were on the other side. The French wasted so many troops in Europe that they were unable to
put enough forces into America.
The Albany Congress met in 1754. Only 7 of 13 colony delegates showed up. It attempted to unite all
of the colonies, but the plan was hated by individual colonists and the London regime.
Braddock's Blundering and Its Aftermath
General Braddock set out in 1755 with 2,000 men to capture Fort Duquesne. His force was slaughtered
by the much smaller French and Indian army. (B
raddock's Blunder) Due to this loss of troops, the
whole frontier from Pennsylvania to North Carolina was left open to attack. George Washington, with only
300 men, tried to defend the area.
In 1756, the British launched a full-scale invasion of Canada.
Pitt's Palms of Victory
In 1757, William Pitt became a prominent leader in the London government. He started to take control of
British military leadership in North America. He attacked and captured L
ouisbourg in 1758.
To lead the attack in the Battle of Quebec in 1759, Pitt chose James Wolfe. The French and British
armies faced each other on the Plains of Abraham, with the British lead by Wolfe and the French lead by
Marquis de Montcalm.
Montreal fell in 1760. The Treaty of Paris (1763) ended the battle and threw the French off the continent
of North America. Out of this conflict, the British became the dominant power in North America.
Intercolonial disunity had been caused by enormous distances; geographical barriers; conflicting
religions, from Catholics to Quakers; varied nationalities, from German to Irish; differing types of colonial
governments; many boundary disputes; and the resentment of the crude back-country settlers against the
War's Fateful Aftermath
In 1763, Ottawa chief, Pontiac, led several tribes, aided by a handful of French traders who remained in
the region, in a violent campaign to drive the British out of the Ohio country. His warriors captured Detroit
in the spring of that year and overran all but 3 British outposts west of the Appalachians.
The British countered these attacks and eventually defeated the Indians.
London government issued the Proclamation of 1763. It prohibited settlement in the area beyond the
Appalachians. (The Appalachian land was acquired after the British beat the Indians). It was made to
prevent another bloody eruption between the settlers and Indians. Many colonists disregarded it. Chapter 7 The Road to Revolution, 1763-1775 Because the British controlled more North American territory after the Seven Years War, they had to
devote more troops and supplies to secure the territories. The British needed more money to support this,
so they started levying taxes on the American colonists.
The Deep Roots of Revolution
Two ideas had taken root in the minds of the American colonists by the mid 18th century (not mutually
1) Republicanism: all citizens willingly work towards the common good, which trumps their private
interests. The stability of society and the authority of government depended on society's capacity for
selflessness, self-sufficiency, and courage. This school of thought opposed authoritarian institutions.
2) Radical Whigs: The Radical Whigs was a group of British political commentators who criticized the
monarchy's corruption and encouraged citizens to be vigilant against attempts to take away liberty.
Mercantilism and Colonial Grievances
British mercantilism in the colonies was a system in which the British expected the colonies to export
raw materials to Britain and import manufactured goods exclusively from Britain.
Georgia was the only colony to be formally created by Britain.
The British viewed the American colonists as tenants: the colonists should exclusively support Britain (via
supply of raw materials, purchase of British exports, etc).
The Navigation Law of 1650 stated that all goods flowing to and from the colonies could only be
transported in British vessels. It aimed to hurt rival Dutch shippers.
The Merits and Menace of Mercantilism
British mercantile laws were not strictly enforced in the colonies and these laws benefited the colonies in
some ways. However, many colonists did not like the mercantile laws.
The Stamp Tax Uproar
Britain incurred a large debt due to the Seven Years War, most of which was created defending the North
American colonies. Britain began to look for ways of getting the colonists to pay for this debt.
In 1763, Prime Minister George Grenville ordered the British navy to begin strictly enforcing the
Navigation Laws. He also got Parliament to pass the Sugar Act of 1764, the first law ever passed by
Parliament to raise tax revenue in the colonies for England. The Sugar Act increased the duty on foreign
sugar imported from the West Indies.
The Quartering Act of 1765 required certain colonies to provide food and quarters for British troops.
In 1765, Grenville imposed a stamp tax on the colonies to raise revenue to support the new military
force. This stamp tax, known as the Stamp Act, required colonists to use stamped paper to certify
payment of taxes on goods like newspapers, legal documents, and diplomas.
American colonists started to rebel against the newly passed taxation measures as they felt the laws were
starting to impinge on their liberties.
Forced Repeal of the Stamp Act
27 delegates from 9 colonies met in New York City for the Stamp Act Congress of 1765. The members
drew up a statement of their rights and grievances and requested the king and Parliament to repeal the
hated legislation. The meeting was largely ignored by England, but it was one step towards intercolonial
unity. Nonimportation agreements (agreements made to not import British goods) w
ere another stride toward
The Sons of Liberty and Daughters of Liberty took the law into their own hands by enforcing the
The Stamp Act was repealed by Parliament in 1766.
Parliament passed the Declaratory Act, which reaffirmed England's right to rule absolutely over the
The Townshend Tea Tax and the Boston Massacre
In 1767, Parliament passed the Townshend Acts. They put a light import tax on glass, white lead,
paper, paint, and tea.
American colonists were rebellious to the new taxes and as a result of these rebellions, the British landed
2 regiments of troops in the colonies in 1768.
On March 5, 1770, a crowd of 60 townspeople attacked 10 redcoats and the redcoats opened fired on the
civilians, killing/wounding 11 of them. The massacre was known as the Boston Massacre.
The Seditious Committees of Correspondence
Lord North, the prime minister of Britain, was forced to persuade Parliament to repeal the Townshend
Samuel Adams: master propagandist and engineer of rebellion; formed the first local committee of
correspondence in Massachusetts in 1772 (Sons of Liberty).
Committees of Correspondence were created by the American colonies in order to maintain
communication with one another. They were organized in the decade before the Revolution when
communication between the colonies became essential.
In March of 1773, the Virginia House of Burgesses, the lower house of the Colony of Virginia, proposed
that each colonial legislature appoint a standing committee for intercolonial correspondence. Within just a
year, nearly all of the colonies had joined.
Tea Brewing in Boston
In 1773, the British East India Company was overstocked with 17 million pounds of unsold tea. If the
company collapsed, the London government would lose tax revenue. Therefore, the London government
gave the company the exclusive right to sell tea in America (at a discount).
Fearing that it was trick to get the colonists to pay import taxes, the colonists rejected the tea. When the
ships arrived in the Boston harbor, the governor of Massachusetts, T
homas Hutchinson, forced the
citizens to allow the ships to unload their tea.
On December 16, 1773, a band of Bostonians, disguised as Indians, boarded the ships and dumped the
tea into the sea. (Boston Tea Party)
Parliament Passes the "Intolerable Acts"
In 1774, Parliament punished the people of Massachusetts for their actions in the Boston Tea Party.
Parliament passed laws, known as the Intolerable Acts, which restricted colonists' rights. The laws
restricted town meetings and required that officials who killed colonists in the line of duty to be sent to
Britain for trial (where it was assumed they would be acquitted of their charges). Another law was the
Boston Port Act. It closed the Boston harbor until damages were paid and order could be ensured.
The Quebec Act was also passed in 1774, but was not apart of the Intolerable Acts. It gave Catholic
French Canadians religious freedom and restored the French form of civil law. The American colonists
opposed this act for a variety of reasons: it angered anti-Catholics; it extended the land area of Quebec. Bloodshed
In 1774, the First Continental Congress met in Philadelphia to respond to colonial grievances over the
Intolerable Acts. 12 of the 13 colonies (excluding Georgia) sent 55 men to the convention. (The First
Continental Congress was not a legislative body; it was a consultative body. It was a convention rather
than a congress.)
After 7 weeks of deliberation, the 1st Continental Congress created several papers. The papers
included a Declaration of Rights and appeals to other British-American colonies, to the king, and to the
The creation of The Association was the most important outcome of the Congress. It called for a
complete boycott of British goods: nonimportation, nonexportation, and nonconsumption.
In April 1775, the British commander in Boston sent a detachment of troops to Lexington and Concord.
Their plan was to seize stocks of colonial gunpowder and to capture the "rebel" ringleaders, Samuel
Adams and John Hancock. At Lexington, 8 Americans were shot and killed. This incident was labelled
as the "Lexington Massacre." When the British went to Concord, they were met with American
resistance and had over 300 casualties and 70 deaths. Because of this, the British realized that they had
a war, rather than a rebellion, on their hands.
Imperial Strength and Weaknesses
The population of Britain was over 3 times as large as America. Britain also had a much greater
economic wealth and naval power.
Unfortunately for the British, though, British troops were committed to fighting the rebellion in Ireland.
Troops were also needed in case France decided to attack Britain. (France was bitter from its recent
defeat.) Britain was therefore forced to divert much of its military power and concentration away from the
Britain's army in America had to operate under numerous difficulties; provisions were short, officers were
not well-trained, troops were operating far from their home base, the Americans did not have a single city
from which they operated (ex: Paris for the French).
American Pluses and Minuses
Americans benefited from good leadership and from the fact that they were fighting defensively. They
were poorly organized, though.
Marquis de Lafayette: Frenchman who was made a major general in the colonial army at the age of 19;
the "French Gamecock"; his services were invaluable in securing further aid from France.
The Articles of Confederation was adopted in 1781. It was the first written constitution adopted by
Due to the lack of metallic money in America, Continental Congress was forced to print "Continental"
paper money. Within a short time, this money depreciated significantly and individual states were forced
to print their own paper money.
A Thin Line of Heroes
Food and military supplies were limited in the colonies. At V
alley Forge, Pennsylvania, American men
went without food for 3 days in the winter o
Baron von Steuben: German who helped train the American fighters to fight the British.
Lord Dunmore: royal (British) governor of Virginia. In 1775, he issued a proclamation promising
freedom for any en...
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