APUSH Tri 1 - Chapter\u200b \u200b6 The\u200b \u200bDuel\u200b \u200bfor\u200b \u200bNorth\u200b \u200bAmerica,\u200b \u200b1608-1763 In\u200b \u200bthe\u200b \u200blate\u200b \u200b1600's\u200b \u200band\u200b

APUSH Tri 1 - Chapteru200b u200b6 Theu200b...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter​ ​6 The​ ​Duel​ ​for​ ​North​ ​America,​ ​1608-1763 In​ ​the​ ​late​ ​1600's​ ​and​ ​early​ ​1700's,​ ​Spain,​ ​England,​ ​and​ ​France​ ​fought​ ​over​ ​territory​ ​in​ ​North​ ​America. The​ ​four​ ​big​ ​wars​ ​were:​ ​King​ ​William's​ ​War,​ ​Queen​ ​Anne's​ ​War,​ ​King​ ​George's​ ​War,​ ​and​ ​the​ ​French​ ​and Indian​ ​War. France​ ​Finds​ ​a​ ​Foothold​ ​in​ ​Canada In​ ​1598​,​ ​the​ ​Edict​ ​of​ ​Nantes​​ ​was​ ​issued​ ​by​ ​the​ ​crown​ ​of​ ​France.​ ​ ​It​ ​granted​ ​limited​ ​religious​ ​freedom​ ​to French​ ​Protestants,​ ​and​ ​stopped​ ​religious​ ​wars​ ​between​ ​the​ ​Protestants​ ​and​ ​Catholics. In​ ​1608​,​ ​France​ ​established​ ​Quebec​.​ ​The​ ​leading​ ​figure​ ​was​ ​Samuel​ ​de​ ​Champlain,​​ ​an​ ​intrepid​ ​soldier and​ ​explorer​ ​whose​ ​energy​ ​and​ ​leadership​ ​earned​ ​him​ ​the​ ​title​ ​"Father​ ​of​ ​New​ ​France". The​ ​government​ ​of​ ​New​ ​France​ ​(Canada)​ ​was​ ​under​ ​direct​ ​control​ ​of​ ​the​ ​king.​ ​ ​The​ ​people​ ​did​ ​not​ ​elect any​ ​representative​ ​assemblies. New​ ​France​ ​Sets​ ​Out New​ ​France​ ​contained​ ​one​ ​valuable​ ​resource​ ​-​ ​beaver​. French​ ​Catholic​ ​missionaries,​ ​notably​ ​the​ ​Jesuits​,​ ​tried​ ​to​ ​convert​ ​the​ ​Indians​ ​to​ ​Christianity​ ​and​ ​to​ ​save them​ ​from​ ​the​ ​fur​ ​trappers. Antoine​ ​Cadillac​-​ ​founded​ ​Detroit​ ​in​ ​1701​​ ​to​ ​thwart​ ​English​ ​settlers​ ​from​ ​pushing​ ​into​ ​the​ ​Ohio​ ​Valley. Robert​ ​de​ ​La​ ​Salle​-​ ​explored​ ​the​ ​Mississippi​ ​and​ ​Gulf​ ​basin,​ ​naming​ ​it​ ​Louisiana. In​ ​order​ ​to​ ​block​ ​the​ ​Spanish​ ​at​ ​the​ ​Gulf​ ​of​ ​Mexico,​ ​the​ ​French​ ​placed​ ​several​ ​fortifications​ ​in​ ​Mississippi and​ ​Louisiana.​ ​ ​The​ ​French​ ​founded​ ​New​ ​Orleans​​ ​in​ ​1718​. Illinois​ ​became​ ​France's​ ​garden​ ​empire​ ​of​ ​North​ ​America​ ​because​ ​much​ ​grain​ ​was​ ​produced​ ​there. The​ ​Clash​ ​of​ ​Empires The​ ​early​ ​battles​ ​between​ ​the​ ​Europeans​ ​for​ ​control​ ​over​ ​North​ ​America​ ​were​ ​mostly​ ​between​ ​British​ ​and French​ ​colonists.​ ​At​ ​this​ ​time,​ ​neither​ ​European​ ​power​ ​saw​ ​North​ ​America​ ​as​ ​a​ ​place​ ​worth​ ​devoting significant​ ​military​ ​resources.​ ​The​ ​British​ ​colonists​ ​referred​ ​to​ ​these​ ​conflicts​ ​as​ K ​ ing​ ​William's​ ​War (1689-1697)​ ​and​ ​Queen​ ​Anne's​ ​War​ ​(1702-1713)​.​ ​The​ ​wars​ ​ended​ ​in​ ​1713​​ ​with​ ​peace​ ​terms​ ​signed​ ​at Utrecht​.​ ​ ​France​ ​was​ ​terribly​ ​beaten​ ​in​ ​these​ ​conflicts,​ ​and​ ​Britain​ ​received​ ​French-populated​ ​Acadia​ ​and Newfoundland​ ​and​ ​the​ ​Hudson​ ​Bay.​ ​ ​The​ ​British​ ​also​ ​won​ ​limited​ ​trading​ ​rights​ ​in​ ​Spanish​ ​America. The​ ​War​ ​of​ ​Jenkins's​ ​Ear​​ ​started​ ​in​ ​1739​​ ​between​ ​the​ ​British​ ​and​ ​Spanish.​ ​This​ ​small​ ​battle​ ​became​ ​a war​ ​and​ ​became​ ​known​ ​as​ ​King​ ​George's​ ​War​ ​in​ ​America.​​ ​ ​It​ ​ended​ ​in​ ​1748​​ ​with​ ​a​ ​treaty​ ​that​ ​handed Louisbourg​ ​back​ ​to​ ​France​ ​(allied​ ​with​ ​Spain),​ ​enraging​ ​the​ ​victorious​ ​New​ ​Englanders. George​ ​Washington​ ​Inaugurates​ ​War​ ​with​ ​France In​ ​1754​,​ ​George​ ​Washington​ ​was​ ​sent​ ​to​ ​the​ ​Ohio​ ​Valley​ ​to​ ​secure​ ​land​ ​that​ ​had​ ​been​ ​purchased​ ​by some​ ​Virginians.​ ​ ​His​ ​150​ ​Virginian​ ​militia​ ​killed​ ​the​ ​French​ ​leader,​ ​causing​ ​French​ ​reinforcements​ ​to come.​ ​ ​The​ ​Virginians​ ​were​ ​forced​ ​to​ ​surrender​ ​on​ ​July​ ​4,​ ​1754. The​ ​increase​ ​in​ ​conflict​ ​caused​ ​the​ ​British​ ​in​ ​Nova​ ​Scotia​ ​to​ ​worry​ ​that​ ​the​ ​French​ ​in​ ​Acadia​ ​would​ ​attack them.​ ​So​ ​in​ ​1755​,​ ​the​ ​British​ ​in​ ​Nova​ ​Scotia​ ​attacked​ ​and​ ​defeated​ ​the​ ​French​ ​Acadians​ ​and​ ​scattered them​ ​as​ ​far​ ​as​ ​Louisiana. Global​ ​War​ ​and​ ​Colonial​ ​Disunity The​ ​French​ ​and​ ​Indian​ ​War​ ​started​ ​in​​ ​1754.​ ​It​ ​was​ ​the​ ​American​ ​theater​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Seven​ ​Years'​ ​War​.​ ​This war​ ​was​ ​fought​ ​in​ ​America,​ ​Europe,​ ​the​ ​West​ ​Indies,​ ​the​ ​Philippines,​ ​Africa,​ ​and​ ​on​ ​the​ ​ocean. In​ ​Europe,​ ​the​ ​principal​ ​adversaries​ ​were​ ​Britain​ ​and​ ​Prussia​ ​on​ ​one​ ​side.​ ​France,​ ​Spain,​ ​Austria,​ ​and Russia​ ​were​ ​on​ ​the​ ​other​ ​side.​ ​ ​The​ ​French​ ​wasted​ ​so​ ​many​ ​troops​ ​in​ ​Europe​ ​that​ ​they​ ​were​ ​unable​ ​to put​ ​enough​ ​forces​ ​into​ ​America. The​ ​Albany​ ​Congress​ ​met​ ​in​​ ​1754.​ ​ ​Only​ ​7​ ​of​ ​13​ ​colony​ ​delegates​ ​showed​ ​up.​ ​ ​It​ ​attempted​ ​to​ ​unite​ ​all of​ ​the​ ​colonies,​ ​but​ ​the​ ​plan​ ​was​ ​hated​ ​by​ ​individual​ ​colonists​ ​and​ ​the​ ​London​ ​regime. Braddock's​ ​Blundering​ ​and​ ​Its​ ​Aftermath General​ ​Braddock​​ ​set​ ​out​ ​in​ ​1755​​ ​with​ ​2,000​ ​men​ ​to​ ​capture​ ​Fort​ ​Duquesne​.​ ​ ​His​ ​force​ ​was​ ​slaughtered by​ ​the​ ​much​ ​smaller​ ​French​ ​and​ ​Indian​ ​army.​ ​ ​(B ​ raddock's​ ​Blunder​)​ ​ ​Due​ ​to​ ​this​ ​loss​ ​of​ ​troops,​ ​the whole​ ​frontier​ ​from​ ​Pennsylvania​ ​to​ ​North​ ​Carolina​ ​was​ ​left​ ​open​ ​to​ ​attack.​ ​George​ ​Washington,​ ​with​ ​only 300​ ​men,​ ​tried​ ​to​ ​defend​ ​the​ ​area. In​ ​1756​,​ ​the​ ​British​ ​launched​ ​a​ ​full-scale​ ​invasion​ ​of​ ​Canada​. Pitt's​ ​Palms​ ​of​ ​Victory In​ ​1757​,​ ​William​ ​Pitt​​ ​became​ ​a​ ​prominent​ ​leader​ ​in​ ​the​ ​London​ ​government.​ ​He​ ​started​ ​to​ ​take​ ​control​ ​of British​ ​military​ ​leadership​ ​in​ ​North​ ​America.​ ​He​ ​attacked​ ​and​ ​captured​ L ​ ouisbourg​ ​in​ ​1758​. To​ ​lead​ ​the​ ​attack​ ​in​ ​the​ ​Battle​ ​of​ ​Quebec​ ​in​ ​1759​,​ ​Pitt​ ​chose​ ​James​ ​Wolfe​.​ ​ ​The​ ​French​ ​and​ ​British armies​ ​faced​ ​each​ ​other​ ​on​ ​the​ ​Plains​ ​of​ ​Abraham​,​ ​with​ ​the​ ​British​ ​lead​ ​by​ ​Wolfe​ ​and​ ​the​ ​French​ ​lead​ ​by Marquis​ ​de​ ​Montcalm​. Montreal​ ​fell​ ​in​ ​1760​.​ ​The​ ​Treaty​ ​of​ ​Paris​ ​(1763)​​ ​ended​ ​the​ ​battle​ ​and​ ​threw​ ​the​ ​French​ ​off​ ​the​ ​continent of​ ​North​ ​America.​ ​Out​ ​of​ ​this​ ​conflict,​ ​the​ ​British​ ​became​ ​the​ ​dominant​ ​power​ ​in​ ​North​ ​America. Restless​ ​Colonists Intercolonial​ ​disunity​​ ​had​ ​been​ ​caused​ ​by​ ​enormous​ ​distances;​ ​geographical​ ​barriers;​ ​conflicting religions,​ ​from​ ​Catholics​ ​to​ ​Quakers;​ ​varied​ ​nationalities,​ ​from​ ​German​ ​to​ ​Irish;​ ​differing​ ​types​ ​of​ ​colonial governments;​ ​many​ ​boundary​ ​disputes;​ ​and​ ​the​ ​resentment​ ​of​ ​the​ ​crude​ ​back-country​ ​settlers​ ​against​ ​the aristocrats. War's​ ​Fateful​ ​Aftermath In​ ​1763​,​ ​Ottawa​ ​chief​,​ ​Pontiac​,​ ​led​ ​several​ ​tribes,​ ​aided​ ​by​ ​a​ ​handful​ ​of​ ​French​ ​traders​ ​who​ ​remained​ ​in the​ ​region,​ ​in​ ​a​ ​violent​ ​campaign​ ​to​ ​drive​ ​the​ ​British​ ​out​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Ohio​ ​country.​ ​ ​His​ ​warriors​ ​captured​ ​Detroit in​ ​the​ ​spring​ ​of​ ​that​ ​year​ ​and​ ​overran​ ​all​ ​but​ ​3​ ​British​ ​outposts​ ​west​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Appalachians. The​ ​British​ ​countered​ ​these​ ​attacks​ ​and​ ​eventually​ ​defeated​ ​the​ ​Indians. London​ ​government​ ​issued​ ​the​ ​Proclamation​ ​of​ ​1763.​ ​ ​It​ ​prohibited​ ​settlement​ ​in​ ​the​ ​area​ ​beyond​ ​the Appalachians.​ ​ ​(The​ ​Appalachian​ ​land​ ​was​ ​acquired​ ​after​ ​the​ ​British​ ​beat​ ​the​ ​Indians).​ ​ ​It​ ​was​ ​made​ ​to prevent​ ​another​ ​bloody​ ​eruption​ ​between​ ​the​ ​settlers​ ​and​ ​Indians.​ ​ ​Many​ ​colonists​ ​disregarded​ ​it. Chapter​ ​7 The​ ​Road​ ​to​ ​Revolution,​ ​1763-1775 Because​ ​the​ ​British​ ​controlled​ ​more​ ​North​ ​American​ ​territory​ ​after​ ​the​ ​Seven​ ​Years​ ​War,​ ​they​ ​had​ ​to devote​ ​more​ ​troops​ ​and​ ​supplies​ ​to​ ​secure​ ​the​ ​territories.​ ​The​ ​British​ ​needed​ ​more​ ​money​ ​to​ ​support​ ​this, so​ ​they​ ​started​ ​levying​ ​taxes​ ​on​ ​the​ ​American​ ​colonists. The​ ​Deep​ ​Roots​ ​of​ ​Revolution Two​ ​ideas​ ​had​ ​taken​ ​root​ ​in​ ​the​ ​minds​ ​of​ ​the​ ​American​ ​colonists​ ​by​ ​the​ ​mid​ ​18​th​​ ​century​ ​(not​ ​mutually exclusive): 1)​ ​Republicanism​:​ ​all​ ​citizens​ ​willingly​ ​work​ ​towards​ ​the​ ​common​ ​good,​ ​which​ ​trumps​ ​their​ ​private interests.​ ​The​ ​stability​ ​of​ ​society​ ​and​ ​the​ ​authority​ ​of​ ​government​ ​depended​ ​on​ ​society's​ ​capacity​ ​for selflessness,​ ​self-sufficiency,​ ​and​ ​courage.​ ​This​ ​school​ ​of​ ​thought​ ​opposed​ ​authoritarian​ ​institutions. 2)​ ​Radical​ ​Whigs​:​ ​The​ ​Radical​ ​Whigs​ ​was​ ​a​ ​group​ ​of​ ​British​ ​political​ ​commentators​ ​who​ ​criticized​ ​the monarchy's​ ​corruption​ ​and​ ​encouraged​ ​citizens​ ​to​ ​be​ ​vigilant​ ​against​ ​attempts​ ​to​ ​take​ ​away​ ​liberty. Mercantilism​ ​and​ ​Colonial​ ​Grievances British​ ​mercantilism​​ ​in​ ​the​ ​colonies​ ​was​ ​a​ ​system​ ​in​ ​which​ ​the​ ​British​ ​expected​ ​the​ ​colonies​ ​to​ ​export raw​ ​materials​ ​to​ ​Britain​ ​and​ ​import​ ​manufactured​ ​goods​ ​exclusively​ ​from​ ​Britain. Georgia​ ​was​ ​the​ ​only​ ​colony​ ​to​ ​be​ ​formally​ ​created​ ​by​ ​Britain. The​ ​British​ ​viewed​ ​the​ ​American​ ​colonists​ ​as​ ​tenants:​ ​the​ ​colonists​ ​should​ ​exclusively​ ​support​ ​Britain​ ​(via supply​ ​of​ ​raw​ ​materials,​ ​purchase​ ​of​ ​British​ ​exports,​ ​etc). The​ ​Navigation​ ​Law​ ​of​ ​1650​​ ​stated​ ​that​ ​all​ ​goods​ ​flowing​ ​to​ ​and​ ​from​ ​the​ ​colonies​ ​could​ ​only​ ​be transported​ ​in​ ​British​ ​vessels.​ ​ ​It​ ​aimed​ ​to​ ​hurt​ ​rival​ ​Dutch​ ​shippers. The​ ​Merits​ ​and​ ​Menace​ ​of​ ​Mercantilism British​ ​mercantile​ ​laws​ ​were​ ​not​ ​strictly​ ​enforced​ ​in​ ​the​ ​colonies​ ​and​ ​these​ ​laws​ ​benefited​ ​the​ ​colonies​ ​in some​ ​ways.​ ​However,​ ​many​ ​colonists​ ​did​ ​not​ ​like​ ​the​ ​mercantile​ ​laws. The​ ​Stamp​ ​Tax​ ​Uproar Britain​ ​incurred​ ​a​ ​large​ ​debt​ ​due​ ​to​ ​the​ ​Seven​ ​Years​ ​War,​ ​most​ ​of​ ​which​ ​was​ ​created​ ​defending​ ​the​ ​North American​ ​colonies.​ ​Britain​ ​began​ ​to​ ​look​ ​for​ ​ways​ ​of​ ​getting​ ​the​ ​colonists​ ​to​ ​pay​ ​for​ ​this​ ​debt. In​ ​1763​,​ ​Prime​ ​Minister​ ​George​ ​Grenville​​ ​ordered​ ​the​ ​British​ ​navy​ ​to​ ​begin​ ​strictly​ ​enforcing​ ​the Navigation​ ​Laws​.​ ​ ​He​ ​also​ ​got​ ​Parliament​ ​to​ ​pass​ ​the​ ​Sugar​ ​Act​ ​of​ ​1764​,​ ​the​ ​first​ ​law​ ​ever​ ​passed​ ​by Parliament​ ​to​ ​raise​ ​tax​ ​revenue​ ​in​ ​the​ ​colonies​ ​for​ ​England.​ ​The​ ​Sugar​ ​Act​ ​increased​ ​the​ ​duty​ ​on​ ​foreign sugar​ ​imported​ ​from​ ​the​ ​West​ ​Indies. The​ ​Quartering​ ​Act​ ​of​ ​1765​ ​required​ ​certain​ ​colonies​ ​to​ ​provide​ ​food​ ​and​ ​quarters​ ​for​ ​British​ ​troops. In​ ​1765​,​ ​Grenville​ ​imposed​ ​a​ ​stamp​ ​tax​ ​on​ ​the​ ​colonies​ ​to​ ​raise​ ​revenue​ ​to​ ​support​ ​the​ ​new​ ​military force.​ ​ ​This​ ​stamp​ ​tax,​ ​known​ ​as​ ​the​ ​Stamp​ ​Act​,​ ​required​ ​colonists​ ​to​ ​use​ ​stamped​ ​paper​ ​to​ ​certify payment​ ​of​ ​taxes​ ​on​ ​goods​ ​like​ ​newspapers,​ ​legal​ ​documents,​ ​and​ ​diplomas. American​ ​colonists​ ​started​ ​to​ ​rebel​ ​against​ ​the​ ​newly​ ​passed​ ​taxation​ ​measures​ ​as​ ​they​ ​felt​ ​the​ ​laws​ ​were starting​ ​to​ ​impinge​ ​on​ ​their​ ​liberties. Forced​ ​Repeal​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Stamp​ ​Act 27​ ​delegates​ ​from​ ​9​ ​colonies​ ​met​ ​in​ ​New​ ​York​ ​City​ ​for​ ​the​ ​Stamp​ ​Act​ ​Congress​ ​of​ ​1765.​ ​The​ ​members drew​ ​up​ ​a​ ​statement​ ​of​ ​their​ ​rights​ ​and​ ​grievances​ ​and​ ​requested​ ​the​ ​king​ ​and​ ​Parliament​ ​to​ ​repeal​ ​the hated​ ​legislation.​ ​The​ ​meeting​ ​was​ ​largely​ ​ignored​ ​by​ ​England,​ ​but​ ​it​ ​was​ ​one​ ​step​ ​towards​ ​intercolonial unity​. Nonimportation​ ​agreements​​ ​(agreements​ ​made​ ​to​ ​not​ ​import​ ​British​ ​goods)​​ w ​ ere​ ​another​ ​stride​ ​toward unionism. The​ ​Sons​ ​of​ ​Liberty​ ​and​​ ​Daughters​ ​of​ ​Liberty​ ​took​ ​the​ ​law​ ​into​ ​their​ ​own​ ​hands​ ​by​ ​enforcing​ ​the nonimportation​ ​agreements. The​ ​Stamp​ ​Act​ ​was​ ​repealed​ ​by​ ​Parliament​ ​in​ ​1766​. Parliament​ ​passed​ ​the​ ​Declaratory​ ​Act,​ ​which​ ​reaffirmed​ ​England's​ ​right​ ​to​ ​rule​ ​absolutely​ ​over​ ​the American​ ​colonies. The​ ​Townshend​ ​Tea​ ​Tax​ ​and​ ​the​ ​Boston​ ​Massacre In​ ​1767​,​ ​Parliament​ ​passed​ ​the​ ​Townshend​ ​Acts.​​ ​ ​They​ ​put​ ​a​ ​light​ ​import​ ​tax​ ​on​ ​glass,​ ​white​ ​lead, paper,​ ​paint,​ ​and​ ​tea. American​ ​colonists​ ​were​ ​rebellious​ ​to​ ​the​ ​new​ ​taxes​ ​and​ ​as​ ​a​ ​result​ ​of​ ​these​ ​rebellions,​ ​the​ ​British​ ​landed 2​ ​regiments​ ​of​ ​troops​ ​in​ ​the​ ​colonies​ ​in​ ​1768​. On​ ​March​ ​5,​ ​1770​,​ ​a​ ​crowd​ ​of​ ​60​ ​townspeople​ ​attacked​ ​10​ ​redcoats​ ​and​ ​the​ ​redcoats​ ​opened​ ​fired​ ​on​ ​the civilians,​ ​killing/wounding​ ​11​ ​of​ ​them.​ ​ ​The​ ​massacre​ ​was​ ​known​ ​as​ ​the​ ​Boston​ ​Massacre​. The​ ​Seditious​ ​Committees​ ​of​ ​Correspondence Lord​ ​North​,​ ​the​ ​prime​ ​minister​ ​of​ ​Britain,​ ​was​ ​forced​ ​to​ ​persuade​ ​Parliament​ ​to​ ​repeal​ ​the​ ​Townshend revenue​ ​duties. Samuel​ ​Adams:​​ ​master​ ​propagandist​ ​and​ ​engineer​ ​of​ ​rebellion;​ ​formed​ ​the​ ​first​ ​local​ ​committee​ ​of correspondence​ ​in​ ​Massachusetts​ ​in​ ​1772​ ​(Sons​ ​of​ ​Liberty). Committees​ ​of​ ​Correspondence​ ​were​ ​created​ ​by​ ​the​ ​American​ ​colonies​ ​in​ ​order​ ​to​ ​maintain communication​ ​with​ ​one​ ​another.​ ​They​ ​were​ ​organized​ ​in​ ​the​ ​decade​ ​before​ ​the​ ​Revolution​ ​when communication​ ​between​ ​the​ ​colonies​ ​became​ ​essential. In​ ​March​ ​of​ ​1773​,​ ​the​ ​Virginia​ ​House​ ​of​ ​Burgesses​,​ ​the​ ​lower​ ​house​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Colony​ ​of​ ​Virginia,​ ​proposed that​ ​each​ ​colonial​ ​legislature​ ​appoint​ ​a​ ​standing​ ​committee​ ​for​ ​intercolonial​ ​correspondence.​ ​Within​ ​just​ ​a year,​ ​nearly​ ​all​ ​of​ ​the​ ​colonies​ ​had​ ​joined. Tea​ ​Brewing​ ​in​ ​Boston In​ ​1773,​ ​the​​ ​British​ ​East​ ​India​ ​Company​​ ​was​ ​overstocked​ ​with​ ​17​ ​million​ ​pounds​ ​of​ ​unsold​ ​tea.​ ​ ​If​ ​the company​ ​collapsed,​ ​the​ ​London​ ​government​ ​would​ ​lose​ ​tax​ ​revenue.​ ​ ​Therefore,​ ​the​ ​London​ ​government gave​ ​the​ ​company​ ​the​ ​exclusive​ ​right​ ​to​ ​sell​ ​tea​ ​in​ ​America​ ​(at​ ​a​ ​discount). Fearing​ ​that​ ​it​ ​was​ ​trick​ ​to​ ​get​ ​the​ ​colonists​ ​to​ ​pay​ ​import​ ​taxes,​ ​the​ ​colonists​ ​rejected​ ​the​ ​tea.​ ​ ​When​ ​the ships​ ​arrived​ ​in​ ​the​ ​Boston​ ​harbor,​ ​the​ ​governor​ ​of​ ​Massachusetts,​ T ​ homas​ ​Hutchinson​,​ ​forced​ ​the citizens​ ​to​ ​allow​ ​the​ ​ships​ ​to​ ​unload​ ​their​ ​tea. On​ ​December​ ​16,​ ​1773​,​ ​a​ ​band​ ​of​ ​Bostonians,​ ​disguised​ ​as​ ​Indians,​ ​boarded​ ​the​ ​ships​ ​and​ ​dumped​ ​the tea​ ​into​ ​the​ ​sea.​ ​ ​(​Boston​ ​Tea​ ​Party​) Parliament​ ​Passes​ ​the​ ​"Intolerable​ ​Acts" In​ ​1774​,​ ​Parliament​ ​punished​ ​the​ ​people​ ​of​ ​Massachusetts​ ​for​ ​their​ ​actions​ ​in​ ​the​ ​Boston​ ​Tea​ ​Party. Parliament​ ​passed​ ​laws,​ ​known​ ​as​ ​the​ ​Intolerable​ ​Acts​,​ ​which​ ​restricted​ ​colonists'​ ​rights.​ ​ ​The​ ​laws restricted​ ​town​ ​meetings​ ​and​ ​required​ ​that​ ​officials​ ​who​ ​killed​ ​colonists​ ​in​ ​the​ ​line​ ​of​ ​duty​ ​to​ ​be​ ​sent​ ​to Britain​ ​for​ ​trial​ ​(where​ ​it​ ​was​ ​assumed​ ​they​ ​would​ ​be​ ​acquitted​ ​of​ ​their​ ​charges).​ ​Another​ ​law​ ​was​ ​the Boston​ ​Port​ ​Act​.​ ​ ​It​ ​closed​ ​the​ ​Boston​ ​harbor​ ​until​ ​damages​ ​were​ ​paid​ ​and​ ​order​ ​could​ ​be​ ​ensured. The​ ​Quebec​ ​Act​​ ​was​ ​also​ ​passed​ ​in​ ​1774​,​ ​but​ ​was​ ​not​ ​apart​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Intolerable​ ​Acts.​ ​ ​It​ ​gave​ ​Catholic French​ ​Canadians​ ​religious​ ​freedom​ ​and​ ​restored​ ​the​ ​French​ ​form​ ​of​ ​civil​ ​law.​ ​The​ ​American​ ​colonists opposed​ ​this​ ​act​ ​for​ ​a​ ​variety​ ​of​ ​reasons:​ ​it​ ​angered​ ​anti-Catholics;​ ​it​ ​extended​ ​the​ ​land​ ​area​ ​of​ ​Quebec. Bloodshed In​ ​1774​,​ ​the​ ​First​​ ​Continental​ ​Congress​ ​met​ ​in​ ​Philadelphia​ ​to​ ​respond​ ​to​ ​colonial​ ​grievances​ ​over​ ​the Intolerable​ ​Acts.​ ​ ​12​ ​of​ ​the​ ​13​ ​colonies​ ​(excluding​ ​Georgia)​ ​sent​ ​55​ ​men​ ​to​ ​the​ ​convention.​ ​ ​(The​ ​First Continental​ ​Congress​ ​was​ ​not​ ​a​ ​legislative​ ​body;​ ​it​ ​was​ ​a​ ​consultative​ ​body.​ ​It​ ​was​ ​a​ ​convention​ ​rather than​ ​a​ ​congress.) After​ ​7​ ​weeks​ ​of​ ​deliberation,​ ​the​ ​1st​ ​Continental​ ​Congress​ ​created​ ​several​ ​papers.​ ​ ​The​ ​papers included​ ​a​ ​Declaration​ ​of​ ​Rights​​ ​and​ ​appeals​ ​to​ ​other​ ​British-American​ ​colonies,​ ​to​ ​the​ ​king,​ ​and​ ​to​ ​the British​ ​people. The​ ​creation​ ​of​ ​The​ ​Association​​ ​was​ ​the​ ​most​ ​important​ ​outcome​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Congress.​ ​It​ ​called​ ​for​ ​a complete​ ​boycott​​ ​of​ ​British​ ​goods:​ ​nonimportation,​ ​nonexportation,​ ​and​ ​nonconsumption. In​ ​April​ ​1775​,​ ​the​ ​British​ ​commander​ ​in​ ​Boston​ ​sent​ ​a​ ​detachment​ ​of​ ​troops​ ​to​ ​Lexington​ ​and​ ​Concord. Their​ ​plan​ ​was​ ​to​ ​seize​ ​stocks​ ​of​ ​colonial​ ​gunpowder​ ​and​ ​to​ ​capture​ ​the​ ​"​rebel"​ ​ringleaders​,​ ​Samuel Adams​​ ​and​​ ​John​ ​Hancock​.​ ​ ​At​ ​Lexington,​ ​8​ ​Americans​ ​were​ ​shot​ ​and​ ​killed.​ ​ ​This​ ​incident​ ​was​ ​labelled as​ ​the​ ​"​Lexington​ ​Massacre​."​ ​ ​When​ ​the​ ​British​ ​went​ ​to​ ​Concord,​ ​they​ ​were​ ​met​ ​with​ ​American resistance​ ​and​ ​had​ ​over​ ​300​ ​casualties​ ​and​ ​70​ ​deaths.​ ​ ​Because​ ​of​ ​this,​ ​the​ ​British​ ​realized​ ​that​ ​they​ ​had a​ ​war​,​ ​rather​ ​than​ ​a​ ​rebellion,​ ​on​ ​their​ ​hands. Imperial​ ​Strength​ ​and​ ​Weaknesses The​ ​population​ ​of​ ​Britain​ ​was​ ​over​ ​3​ ​times​ ​as​ ​large​ ​as​ ​America.​ ​ ​Britain​ ​also​ ​had​ ​a​ ​much​ ​greater economic​ ​wealth​ ​and​ ​naval​ ​power. Unfortunately​ ​for​ ​the​ ​British,​ ​though,​ ​British​ ​troops​ ​were​ ​committed​ ​to​ ​fighting​ ​the​ ​rebellion​ ​in​ ​Ireland. Troops​ ​were​ ​also​ ​needed​ ​in​ ​case​ ​France​ ​decided​ ​to​ ​attack​ ​Britain.​ ​(France​ ​was​ ​bitter​ ​from​ ​its​ ​recent defeat.)​ ​ ​Britain​ ​was​ ​therefore​ ​forced​ ​to​ ​divert​ ​much​ ​of​ ​its​ ​military​ ​power​ ​and​ ​concentration​ ​away​ ​from​ ​the Americas. Britain's​ ​army​ ​in​ ​America​ ​had​ ​to​ ​operate​ ​under​ ​numerous​ ​difficulties;​ ​provisions​ ​were​ ​short,​ ​officers​ ​were not​ ​well-trained,​ ​troops​ ​were​ ​operating​ ​far​ ​from​ ​their​ ​home​ ​base,​ ​the​ ​Americans​ ​did​ ​not​ ​have​ ​a​ ​single​ ​city from​ ​which​ ​they​ ​operated​ ​(ex:​ ​Paris​ ​for​ ​the​ ​French). American​ ​Pluses​ ​and​ ​Minuses Americans​ ​benefited​ ​from​ ​good​ ​leadership​ ​and​ ​from​ ​the​ ​fact​ ​that​ ​they​ ​were​ ​fighting​ ​defensively.​ ​They were​ ​poorly​ ​organized,​ ​though. Marquis​ ​de​ ​Lafayette:​​ ​Frenchman​ ​who​ ​was​ ​made​ ​a​ ​major​ ​general​ ​in​ ​the​ ​colonial​ ​army​ ​at​ ​the​ ​age​ ​of​ ​19; the​ ​"French​ ​Gamecock";​ ​his​ ​services​ ​were​ ​invaluable​ ​in​ ​securing​ ​further​ ​aid​ ​from​ ​France. The​ ​Articles​ ​of​ ​Confederation​​ ​was​ ​adopted​ ​in​ ​1781​.​ ​ ​It​ ​was​ ​the​ ​first​ ​written​ ​constitution​ ​adopted​ ​by colonists. Due​ ​to​ ​the​ ​lack​ ​of​ ​metallic​ ​money​ ​in​ ​America,​ ​Continental​ ​Congress​ ​was​ ​forced​ ​to​ ​print​ ​"​Continental​" paper​ ​money.​ ​ ​Within​ ​a​ ​short​ ​time,​ ​this​ ​money​ ​depreciated​ ​significantly​ ​and​ ​individual​ ​states​ ​were​ ​forced to​ ​print​ ​their​ ​own​ ​paper​ ​money. A​ ​Thin​ ​Line​ ​of​ ​Heroes Food​ ​and​ ​military​ ​supplies​ ​were​ ​limited​ ​in​ ​the​ ​colonies.​ ​At​ V ​ alley​ ​Forge​,​ ​Pennsylvania,​ ​American​ ​men went​ ​without​ ​food​ ​for​ ​3​ ​days​ ​in​ ​the​ ​winter​ o ​ f​ ​1777-1778​. Baron​ ​von​ ​Steuben:​​ ​German​ ​who​ ​helped​ ​train​ ​the​ ​American​ ​fighters​ ​to​ ​fight​ ​the​ ​British. Lord​ ​Dunmore:​​ ​royal​ ​(British)​ ​governor​ ​of​ ​Virginia.​ ​ ​In​ ​1775​,​ ​he​ ​issued​ ​a​ ​proclamation​ ​promising freedom​​ ​for​ ​any​ ​en...
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