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CN-Module2 descriptive notes.pdf - Module – 2: Transport...

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Module2: Transport LayerModule2TRANSPORT LAYERIntroduction and Transport-Layer ServicesA transport-layer protocol provides for logical communication between application processesrunning on different hosts.Application processes use the logical communication provided by the transport layer to sendmessages to each other, free from the worry of the details of the physical infrastructure usedto carry these messages.On the sending side, the transport layer converts the application-layer messages it receivesfrom a sending application process into transport-layer packets, known as transport-layersegments.This is done by (possibly) breaking the application messages into smaller chunks and addinga transport-layer header to each chunk to create the transport-layer segment.The transport layer then passes the segment to the network layer at the sending end system,where the segment is encapsulated within a network-layer packet (a datagram) and sent to thedestination.On the receiving side, the network layer extracts the transport-layer segment from thedatagram and passes the segment up to the transport layer.The transport layer then processes the received segment, making the data in the segmentavailable to the receiving application.Internet has two protocolsTCP and UDP. Each of these protocols provides a different setof transport-layer services to the invoking application.Relationship between Transport and Network LayersTransport Layer provides Process to process delivery service whereas network layer providesend to end delivery of data.Transport-layer protocol provides logical communication betweenprocessesrunning ondifferent hosts, a network-layer protocol provides logical communication between hosts.
Module2: Transport LayerWithin an end system, a transport protocol moves messages from application processes to thenetwork edge (that is, the network layer) and vice versa, but itdoesn’t have any say abouthow the messages are moved within the network core.The services that a transport protocol can provide are often constrained by the service modelof the underlying network-layer protocol. If the network-layer protocol cannot provide delayor bandwidth guarantees for transport layer segments sent between hosts, then the transport-layer protocol cannot provide delay or bandwidth guarantees for application messages sentbetween processes.Overview of the Transport Layer in the InternetThe Internet supports two transport layer protocols:1)UDP (User Datagram Protocol), which provides an unreliable, connectionless service to theinvoking application.2)TCP (Transmission Control Protocol), which provides a reliable, connection-oriented serviceto the invoking application.TheInternet’s network-layer protocol hasInternet Protocol.IP provides logicalcommunication between hosts.The IP service model is a best-effort delivery service. This means that IP makes its ―besteffort‖ to deliver s

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Term
Winter
Professor
ANImesh
Tags
Transmission Control Protocol

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