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Interactions With Robots: The Truths We Reveal About Ourselves Elizabeth Broadbent Department of Psychological Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Auckland 1142, New Zealand; email: [email protected] Annu. Rev. Psychol. 2017. 68:627–52 First published online as a Review in Advance on September 14, 2016 The Annual Review of Psychology is online at psych.annualreviews.org This article’s doi: 10.1146/annurev-psych-010416-043958 Copyright c 2017 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved Keywords human–robot interaction, uncanny valley, mind perception, anthropomorphism Abstract In movies, robots are often extremely humanlike. Although these robots are not yet reality, robots are currently being used in healthcare, education, and business. Robots provide benefits such as relieving loneliness and enabling communication. Engineers are trying to build robots that look and behave like humans and thus need comprehensive knowledge not only of technology but also of human cognition, emotion, and behavior. This need is driving engineers to study human behavior toward other humans and toward robots, leading to greater understanding of how humans think, feel, and behave in these contexts, including our tendencies for mindless social behaviors, anthropomorphism, uncanny feelings toward robots, and the formation of emotional attachments. However, in considering the increased use of robots, many people have concerns about deception, privacy, job loss, safety, and the loss of human relationships. Human–robot interaction is a fascinating field and one in which psychologists have much to contribute, both to the development of robots and to the study of human behavior. 627 Click here to view this article's online features: • Download figures as PPT slides • Navigate linked references • Download citations • Explore related articles • Search keywords ANNUAL REVIEWS Further Annu. Rev. Psychol. 2017.68:627-652. Downloaded from annualreviews.org Access provided by Bangor University on 02/10/17. For personal use only.
Autonomous robot: a robot that can operate and perform tasks by itself without continuous human guidance Contents INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 628 CURRENT APPLICATIONS OF SOCIAL ROBOTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 629 Healthcare Robots for Older People . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 629 Robots for Children with Autism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 632 Telerobotics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 632 Robot-Assisted Recovery from Stroke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 633 Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 633 Shopping Mall Guides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 634 CURRENT DIRECTIONS, CONCERNS, AND ETHICAL ISSUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . 634 WHAT MAKING ROBOTS CAN TEACH US ABOUT OURSELVES . . . . . . . . . . . 635 Creating Humanlike Robots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 635 Creating Pet-Like Robots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 637 STUDYING HOW WE THINK, FEEL, AND BEHAVE TOWARD ROBOTS . . . 637 A Visit to the Uncanny Valley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 638 Robots Change, Challenge, and Reveal Us: The Second Self . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 639 We Mindlessly Apply Social Rules to Robots: The Media Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 640 We Perceive the World Through a Human Filter: Anthropomorphism . . . . . . . . . . . . 641 We Perceive Mind in Robots: Mind Perception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 642 Emotional Attachment to Robots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 643 Robots Versus Other Technologies: Physical Embodiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 644 Robot Abuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 644 CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 645 INTRODUCTION Robots in science fiction movies are often humanlike. They experience emotions, express opinions,

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