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Lecture 2.docx - Week 2: The Physical Environment Earth’s...

  • Ryerson University
  • CGEO 110
  • Notes
  • Josh_Russell_123
  • 6
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Week 2: The Physical EnvironmentEarth’s Four SpheresWe divide Earth intoabiotic (non- living)andbiotic (living)spheresThree abiotic spheres: Atmosphere, Hydrosphere, Lithosphere (geosphere)Biotic sphere: BiosphereConservation Laws of Mass and EnergyMass is neither destroyed nor createdEnergy is the capacity to change the motion of, or to do work on, matterEnergy is neither destroyed nor createdInput- Output= Storage changeOpen System and Closed SystemAn open systemis a system with inputs of energy or matter and outputs of energy ormatterA closed systemis shut off from the surrounding environment so that it is self- contained.Closed systems are rare in natureEarth system is anopen systemin terms ofenergyEarth system is aclosed systemin terms ofphysical matter and resourcesSystem FeedbackFeedback loop: Outputs of a system influence the system’s operation through a pathwayNegative feedback: The feedback information discourages response in the system. – aself regulation, stable condition.Positive feedback: The feedback information increased response in the system. – arunaway condition (snowballing)
The Artic Sea Ice-Albedo Positive FeedbackAlbedo is the ratio of reflected solar radiation to the total incoming solar radiationTemp risingSea ice melts, exposes darker ocean surfaceReflectivity, or albedo isalteredOcean absorbs more heatSteady- State EquilibriumWhen the rates of inputs and outputs in the system are equal and the amounts of energyand matter in storage within the system are constant (or fluctuate around a stable average)Dynamic EquilibriumSome systems are in condition of dynamic equilibrium with an increasing or decreasingtrendA dynamic equilibrium system may change to a new operation level as it reaches athreshold calledtipping pointLatitude

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Term
Spring
Professor
Danielle Mitchell
Tags
Geodesy, Geography, Equator, Geographic information system

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