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Exam 1 - Sociology Exam 1 INTRODUCTION o What is Sociology...

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Sociology Exam 1 INTRODUCTION o What is Sociology? Sociology -the scientific study of social interaction and social organization Contributors Auguste Comte: credited as father of sociology Harriet Martineau : strong feminist who argued sociology as a science; wrote first book on methodology of social research Herbert Spencer: Social Darwinism -government should not interfere with natural processes of society Karl Marx: society is divided into haves and have-nots o Dialectical materialism -idea that development depends on clash of contradictions, and creation of more advanced structures Emile Durkheim o Social Machine- society is a system of interrelated parts that function together focuses on group over individual o Social facts - aspects of social life that cannot be explained by individual characteristics ( ex. Institutions, crime rate, rules, principles of morality) Max Weber o Verstehen- attempt to walk in someone else’s shoes to identify how they think and feel o Ideal type - concept that portrays principle characteristics of something sociologists would like to study allows sociologists to generalize data into large groups and ignore minor differences Erving Goffman Sociological imagination -ability to see the connection between the larger world and our own personal lives ( how we fit in the puzzle ) Science Always changing, abstract, NOT individual facts, but a process Describes conceptualize (ex. Inequality, social institutions) Generalizes behavior of a group Explains why tendencies occur o That is, science creates theories Theories are the framework of facts Predicts That is, science tests theories Is Objective (Is it?) o No, bias always exists Research money funds studies with expected outcomes Politics and personal beliefs create bias Value Implications o Good Facts - no matter how weak evidence is, majority believes anyway because the concept is morally right o Bad Facts - no matter how strong evidence, the idea will not be accepted because it is morally wrong o ***Not used to determine if hypothesis is true or false or if an idea is a fact***
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Uses empirical data- data which can be measured, and will return the same results every time Should be falsifiable o States how the idea can be tested and how concepts can be reliably measured o Ability to be replicated Important terms o Variable- concept that can take on different values Independent -causes effect Dependent -is affected o Hypothesis -proposition that can be tested for validity o Correlation- exists if a change in one variable is associated with a changed in the other variable o Spurious correlation -apparent relationship between the two variables is produced by a third variable ( ex. severe sickness is a spurious correlation between hospital visits and death) Social Interaction Social- A social situation is one in which people orient their actions toward one another Can occur with just one person
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