LifespanDevelopment.pdf - LIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT A Psychological Perspective Second Edition By Martha Lally and Suzanne Valentine-French 1 Lifespan

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Unformatted text preview: LIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT A Psychological Perspective Second Edition By Martha Lally and Suzanne Valentine-French 1 Lifespan Development: A Psychological Perspective Second Edition By Martha Lally and Suzanne Valentine-French (Published 2019) This Open Education Resource (OER) textbook was funded by a grant from the College of Lake County Foundation and supported by the Business and Social Sciences Division. This textbook can be found at: Publication is under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 unported license to view a copy of this license, visit or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA. 2 Table of Contents Chapter 1: Introduction to Lifespan Development Chapter 2: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth Chapter 3: Infancy and Toddlerhood Chapter 4: Early Childhood Chapter 5: Middle and Late Childhood Chapter 6: Adolescence Chapter 7: Emerging and Early Adulthood Chapter 8: Middle Adulthood Chapter 9: Late Adulthood Chapter 10: Death and Dying 3 Table of Contents Chapter 1: Introduction to Lifespan Development ....................................................................................... 9 Lifespan Perspective ............................................................................................................................. 10 Conceptions of Age ............................................................................................................................... 13 Periods of Development......................................................................................................................... 14 Issues in Lifespan Development ............................................................................................................. 16 Historical Theories on Development ....................................................................................................... 17 Contemporary Theories on Development ................................................................................................ 18 Descriptive Research ............................................................................................................................. 24 Correlational Research .......................................................................................................................... 26 Experimental Research .......................................................................................................................... 28 Research Involving Time-Spans ............................................................................................................. 29 Conducting Ethical Research .................................................................................................................. 32 References ............................................................................................................................................ 33 Chapter 2: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth.............................................................................. 35 Heredity ............................................................................................................................................... 35 Genotypes and Phenotypes .................................................................................................................... 36 Genetic Disorders ................................................................................................................................. 37 Chromosomal Abnormalities .................................................................................................................. 39 Behavioral Genetics .............................................................................................................................. 41 Prenatal Development ........................................................................................................................... 43 The Germinal Period ............................................................................................................................. 43 The Embryonic Period ........................................................................................................................... 44 The Fetal Period.................................................................................................................................... 45 Prenatal Brain Development .................................................................................................................. 47 Teratogens ............................................................................................................................................ 47 Maternal Factors ................................................................................................................................... 53 Prenatal Assessment .............................................................................................................................. 57 Complications of Pregnancy .................................................................................................................. 59 Preparation for Childbirth ...................................................................................................................... 60 Stages of Birth for Vaginal Delivery ....................................................................................................... 61 Assessing the Neonate ........................................................................................................................... 63 Problems of the Newborn ...................................................................................................................... 63 Postpartum Maternal Concerns ............................................................................................................... 65 References ............................................................................................................................................ 65 Chapter 3: Infancy and Toddlerhood .......................................................................................................... 71 The Brain in the First Two Years ............................................................................................................ 72 Infant Sleep .......................................................................................................................................... 74 From Reflexes to Voluntary Movements ................................................................................................. 77 Motor Development .............................................................................................................................. 78 Sensory Capacities ................................................................................................................................ 79 Nutrition .............................................................................................................................................. 82 Global Considerations and Malnutrition .................................................................................................. 84 Piaget and the Sensorimotor Stage .......................................................................................................... 85 Language ............................................................................................................................................. 89 Components of Language ...................................................................................................................... 90 Language Developmental Progression .................................................................................................... 91 Theories of Language Development........................................................................................................ 93 4 Temperament ........................................................................................................................................ 97 Infant Emotions .................................................................................................................................... 99 Forming Attachments .......................................................................................................................... 101 Erikson: Trust vs. Mistrust ................................................................................................................... 102 Mary Ainsworth and the Strange Situation Technique ............................................................................ 102 Erikson: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt ............................................................................................. 106 Measuring Infant Development ............................................................................................................ 106 References .......................................................................................................................................... 106 Chapter 4: Early Childhood ....................................................................................................................... 115 Brain Maturation ................................................................................................................................. 116 Motor Skill Development..................................................................................................................... 117 Toilet Training .................................................................................................................................... 119 Sleep .................................................................................................................................................. 119 Sexual Development in Early Childhood ............................................................................................... 120 Nutritional Concerns ........................................................................................................................... 121 Piaget’s Preoperational Stage ............................................................................................................... 123 Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory of Cognitive Development .................................................................. 126 Information Processing ........................................................................................................................ 127 Attention ............................................................................................................................................ 127 Memory ............................................................................................................................................. 128 Neo-Piagetians .................................................................................................................................... 130 Children’s Understanding of the World ................................................................................................. 131 Language Development ....................................................................................................................... 133 Bilingualism ....................................................................................................................................... 134 Preschool ........................................................................................................................................... 135 Autism Spectrum Disorder ................................................................................................................... 136 Erikson: Initiative vs. Guilt .................................................................................................................. 139 Self-Concept and Self-Esteem .............................................................................................................. 139 Self-Control ........................................................................................................................................ 140 Gender ............................................................................................................................................... 140 Theories of Gender Development ......................................................................................................... 141 Transgender Children .......................................................................................................................... 142 Parenting Styles .................................................................................................................................. 143 Spanking ............................................................................................................................................ 145 Sibling Relationships ........................................................................................................................... 146 Play ................................................................................................................................................... 147 Children and the Media ....................................................................................................................... 149 Child Care .......................................................................................................................................... 150 Child Abuse........................................................................................................................................ 151 Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) ............................................................................................... 152 References .......................................................................................................................................... 155 Chapter 5: Middle and Late Childhood .................................................................................................... 164 Physical Development ......................................................................................................................... 164 Sports ................................................................................................................................................ 165 Childhood Obesity .............................................................................................................................. 168 Concrete Operational Thought ............................................................................................................. 170 Information Processing ........................................................................................................................ 172 Language Development ....................................................................................................................... 174 Communication Disorders ................................................................................................................... 174 5 Theories of Intelligence ....................................................................................................................... 175 Measuring Intelligence: Standardization and the Intelligence Quotient ...................................................... 179 Extremes of Intelligence: Intellectual Disability and Giftedness ............................................................... 181 Education ........................................................................................................................................... 183 Cultural Differences in the Classroom................................................................................................... 184 Children with Disabilities .................................................................................................................... 187 Children with Disabilities: Legislation .................................................................................................. 191 Erikson: Industry vs. Inferiority ............................................................................................................ 193 Self-Understanding ............................................................................................................................. 193 Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development ............................................................................................. 194 Friends and Peers ................................................................................................................................ 196 Bullying ............................................................................................................................................. 199 Family Life......................................................................................................................................... 200 References .......................................................................................................................................... 205 Chapter 6: Adolescence ............................................................................................................................ 215 Growth in Adolescence........................................................................................................................ 215 Sexual Development ........................................................................................................................... 216 Adolescent Brain ................................................................................................................................ 219 Adolescent Sleep ................................................................................................................................ 221 Adolescent Sexual Activity .................................................................................................................. 222 Eating Disorders ................................................................................................................................. 223 Piaget’s Formal Operational Stage ........................................................................................................ 225 Information Processing ........................................................................................................................ 227 Education ........................................................................................................................................... 228 School Based Preparatory Experiences ................................................................................................. 230 Teenagers and Working ....................................................................................................................... 230 Teenage Drivers .................................................................................................................................. 231 Self-concept and Self-esteem in Adolescence ........................................................................................ 233 Erikson: Identity vs. Role Confusion..................................................................................................... 233 Parents and Teens: Autonomy and Attachment ...................................................................................... 237 Peers .................................................................................................................................................. 238 Romantic Relationships ....................................................................................................................... 239 References ......................................................
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