Toward Total War ●The military Carnage in 1862 revealed that the war would be long and costly ●Increasing the Civil war resembled the total wars that would come in the twentieth century ●Governments mobilized the entire resources of their societies and decreed that the lives and property of enemy civilians were legitimate objects of attack ●Lincoln organized an effective central government able to wage all-out war ●Eleven states of the confederacy remained suspicious of centralized rule amd southern yeoman grew increasingly skeptical of the war effort Mobilizing Armies and Civilians: ●Patriotic fervor filled both armies with eager young volunteers ●Southern call for volunteers was even more successful, thanks to its strong military tradition, supply of trained officers, and a culture that stressed duty and honor ●Enlistments declined as potential recruits The Military Draft: ●Confederacy acted first. ●New laws required existing soldiers to serve for 3 years between the ages 18-45. ●Some southerners refuse to serve because confederate constitution vested sovereignty in individual states. ●State judges issued writs of habeas corpus- legal instruments used to protect people from arbitrary arrest- and ordered the Confederate army to release reluctant draftees. However, congress overrode judge’s authority so government kept armies in field well into 1864.