Unit 3.2 Communication and Internet technologies.docx - 3.2 Internet and Communication Protocol \u2013 a set of rules governing the way that devices

Unit 3.2 Communication and Internet technologies.docx - 3.2...

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3.2 Internet and Communication Protocol – a set of rules governing the way that devices communicate with each other. The computers must talk to each other in a way that the receiving end can understand the message. In order for that to happen, there are sets of rules governing modes of communication. These rules are called protocols . Examples include: FTP, HTTP, POP3, and SMTP Port Number – an application endpoint or process specific communication endpoint attached to an IP address. When you send and receive data from a client or server, you will be sending lots of different types of data. To make sure that the data is dealt with by the correct program, you need to add a port number. Each application will have a port number associate with it. For example, a web server is “port 80” and a Counter-Strike game port is “666” Combining an IP address with a port gives us a “ Socket” This is a direct connection to a process or application on a machine:
FTP: File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used to copy a file from one host to another over TCP/IP- based network such as the internet . FTP works on port 21 HTTP: The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a networking protocol behind the World Wide Web. It allows for users on the web to exchange information found on web pages. HTTP works on ports 80 & 8080. POP3 & SMTP: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is an internet standard for sending e-mails across networks. SMTP is specified for “outgoing” mail transport and uses port 25. The protocol for receiving mail is called Post Office Protocol 3 (POP3) and uses port 110.
The Main task that each of these protocols do is simple. However, the protocol itself is made up of several modules each of which is responsible for a certain subtask. All the layers together complete the main task and form the protocol. Idea of dividing a protocol into subtasks can be viewed as a stack structure where each subtask is an individual block. TCP/IP stands for T ransmission C ontrol P rotocol/ I nternet P rotocol. It defines how electron devices should connect over the internet, and how data should be transmitted between computers. TCP – Transmission Control Protocol TCP is responsible for breaking data down into packets before they can be sent over a network, and for assembling the packets again when they arrive. IP – Internet Protocol IP takes care of the communication between computers. It is responsible for addressing, sending and receiving the data packets over the Internet.
Communication between computers on a network is done through protocol Suits. The most widely used and available suit is TCP/IP . A protocol suit consists of a layer architecture where each layer depicts some functionality which can be carried out by a protocol.

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