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final question 1 120A - Copy

final question 1 120A - Copy - 1 Discuss the role played by...

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1. Discuss the role played by West Berlin in U.S. foreign policy. Why was West Berlin so important to U.S. presidents? Why did Truman decide to stay in West Berlin and airlift supplies to the people? Why did Khrushchev make threats against West Berlin in 1958 and 1961? Why did Eisenhower and Kennedy respond differently? How were the 1958 and 1961 crises resolved? How did Berlin lead to the Cuban Missile crisis? What prevented subsequent Berlin crises? An important factor to note about all three of these incidents is that they all involved the threat of Nuclear war 1. Berlin Blockade June 24 th 1948 A. Soviets close off access B. Soviet motives London Program June 7 th Currency reform Deutshemark C. U.S. Options Truman got three options 1. Withdraw U.S. Troops Had no real reason for troops inside germany West Berlin was indefensible, 18,000 of us vs. 300,000 soviets Soviets controlled all access to west berlin 2. Fight, or show of force General clay argued that the us should send 200 trucks down the east german autobahn, thought the convoy would allow it to pass and then the blockade would be over 3. Stay and negotiate Use air lift to get supplies in D. Truman decided to stay in berlin. No Discussion E. The air lift Designed by clay 1 st one only shipped 200 tons of food, but berlin needed 4500 tons a day Truman ordered expansion of airlift Advisors warned that airlift couldn’t work for that long F. Soviet Caution G. US ingenuity Learned bread was too heavy, so they sent flour Staggered launches so 1 launched every minute H. Soviet retreat
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Why did stalin decide to settle? Soviets looked bad in the world view East germany was getting economic sanctions There were two main issues at stake, the problem of Germany united or divided and whether or not W. Germany should have nuclear weapons The crisis arose out of US attempts to make W. Europe credible, The threat of ICBM from soviets brought up the question of whether the US would defend western Europe a. NATO Council meeting Dec. 1957 i. Eisenhower meets to decide deterrence make defense more credible 1. US would put a nuclear stockpile in Europe that would be available to NATO 2. Intermediate range missiles in Europe targeted at USSR (IRBM) 3. Wanted to put them in Italy and Turkey a. Borders USSR, played a role in Cuban missile crises b. The placement of these missiles were the
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