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Question 5 Final 120A

Question 5 Final 120A - The New Look was the name given to...

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The New Look was the name given to the national security policy of the United States during the administration of President Dwight D. Eisenhower . It reflected Eisenhower's concern for balancing the Cold War military commitments of the United States with the nation's financial resources and emphasized reliance on strategic nuclear weapons to deter potential threats, both conventional and nuclear, from the Eastern Bloc of nations headed by the Soviet Union . In its narrowest sense, the New Look was the name applied to the Department of Defense budget for Fiscal Year 1955 , which was the first defense budget prepared entirely by Eisenhower's own Joint Chiefs of Staff . It was based on an extensive reappraisal of U.S. military requirements that began among Eisenhower and his closest advisers immediately following his election in November 1952 . 1 It was formalized in National Security Council document 162/2 (NSC 162/2), which Eisenhower approved on October 30 , 1953 . NSC 162/2 reflected Eisenhower's desire for a "long-haul" approach to security planning that would maintain a more or less constant level of military readiness consistent with the health of the U.S. economy . 2 In this respect, it differed from NSC 68 , approved by President Harry S. Truman on September 30 , 1950 . Truman's advisers believed that Soviet military capabilities would reach a maximum relative to those of the United States and its allies in the mid-1950s. Eisenhower, however, rejected the idea that one period would be any more dangerous than another and urged his planners to think in terms of a Soviet threat that was economic as well as military. He wanted to avoid, in his own words, "an unbearable security burden leading to economic disaster." 3 With the costly experience of the Korean War in mind, Eisenhower was fearful that U.S. resources would be drained by Soviet-inspired regional conflicts. 4 In order to contain defense costs, the New Look brought about a shift in emphasis from conventional military capability to "air-atomic" capability in the form of the Strategic Air Command within a scaled-down overall military establishment. Land and naval forces were cut. Continental air defense was expanded. Although strategic air power attained a lower level than the Truman administration had projected, it became the centerpiece of U.S. security thinking, embodied in the doctrine of " Massive Retaliation ." Summarized in the popular slogan "more bang for the buck," Massive Retaliation was intended to be both a deterrent to an enemy and an economy of scale if deterrence failed. 5 The doctrine was proclaimed in its most absolute form by Secretary of State John Foster Dulles in a speech before the Council on Foreign Relations on January 12 , 1954 , in which he said, "Local defenses must be reinforced by the further deterrent of massive retaliatory power [emphasis added]. 6 Dulles continued:
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