National Pingtung University of Science and TechnologyDepartment of Tropical Agriculture and International CooperationOrganic Chemistry Lab Report:Experiment 8: Test for Properties of BenzeneInstructor:Dr. Albert Linton CharlesGroup #9Jasper Hsu (B10722034)Mike Li (B10722035)Karen Perez (B10722056)November 29th, 2019
Experiment 8: Test for Properties of Benzene1. IntroductionBenzeneis the simplest of the aromatic hydrocarbons with the formula C6H6. At room temperature is acolorless liquid with a sweet taste, and has a strong aromatic odor. Despite being sweet, it shall not beingested because of it can burn, is toxic, and has been declared as a carcinogen. Benzene is widely used as anindustrial chemical.It is found in crude oil and is a major part of gasoline. It's used to make plastics, resins,synthetic fibers, rubber lubricants, dyes, detergents, drugs and pesticides. Benzene is produced naturally byvolcanoes and forest fires. In homes, benzene may be found in glues, adhesives, cleaning products, paintstrippers, tobacco smoke and gasoline. Most benzene in the environment comes from our use of petroleumproducts. Among the properties of benzene we can find its solubility. It is insoluble in water, but soluble in anorganic solvent, such as itself. Hydrogen atoms on the benzene ring may be substituted by halogen, nitro,sulfonic acid group, a hydrocarbon group, etc., and generate the corresponding derivatives. The position ofsubstituent and a hydrogen atom are different; hence, it is possible to generate a different number andstructure isomers. Benzene quickly evaporates from water or soil, which is why it can contaminategroundwater by being leaked from buried storage tanks or landfills and move long distances.1.1 PrincipleWe can test for properties of benzene with experiments on solubility, flammability, nitrification, sulfonatedeffect, halogenation reaction, alkylation, and unsaturated test. For this lab, we tested three of them: solubility,nitrification, and unsaturated test. The most common reactions of benzene involve substitution of a proton byother groups. Electrophilic aromatic substitution is a general method of derivatizing benzene. Benzene issufficiently nucleophilic that it undergoes substitution by acylium ions and alkyl carbocations to givesubstituted derivatives. Sulfonated benzene derivatives are useful detergents. In nitration, benzene reacts withnitronium ions (NO2+), which is a strong electrophile produced by combining sulfuric and nitric acids.