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non-destructive_testing_report - Non-destructive Paper...

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Non-destructive Paper Testing 1 Paper 1000 Laboratory # 3 Non-Destructive Testing of Paper Abstract The non-destructive testing of papers using a variety of instruments can accurately gauge their caliper, bulk, density, moisture content, opacity, brightness, gloss, and porosity. Characteristics of machine and cross direction, as well as wire and felt sides were also conducted. Tests were run on three samples of paper; office, light weight coated (LWC), and super calendar (SCA). 5 in diameter circles of each material were cut and weighed to calculate basis weight and moisture. Machine direction (MD) was determined by observing which direction the paper curved the least from gravity. The parallel direction was labeled as the cross grain direction (CD). The higher amount of smoothness (in microns) denoted the felt side of each paper sample, with the opposite as the wire side. The office paper was found to be of the highest basis weight and caliper among the three samples. The wire side of the paper samples is rougher than the felt side. The super calender (SCA) sample contained the highest moisture content. Also, the data show that the papers with lower smoothness possessed a higher gloss. The machine direction (MD) part of the paper samples had higher gloss than the cross grain direction (CD). The light weight coated (LWC) paper showed the highest gloss factor of the three. The light weight coated possessed the highest porosity. Introduction Paper may be characterized by measuring its physical, optical, surface, and structural properties. In order to determine the best use for a particular paper type, these qualities must be carefully studied. For example, if a type of paper is found to have a low porosity, it would be well suited to use in the food industry. The qualities of a paper’s surface can also affect the behavior of printing inks on its surface. Since there are a multitude of factors to consider in paper quality, there must be a variety of machines and measuring tools to study them. Only through careful scientific process and mathematics can we accurately gauge the properties of paper. Objectives The objectives of the lab were: 1. Familiarization with instruments used to conduct non-destructive paper testing. 2. Perform paper (Non-destructive) testing on a sample of office paper (uncoated light weight publication), light weight coated, and super calender papers as per TAPPI standards. 3. Synthesis of data to observe characteristics of different paper types.
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Non-destructive Paper Testing 2 Results 5 in diameter circles of each material were cut and weighed to calculate basis weight and moisture. The basis weight in grams per cubic meter was measured according to TAPPI standard T410. The density was calculated by dividing the basis weight by the caliper of each paper sample: the bulk is the reciprocal of the density.
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