Exam II Review Geology

Exam II Review Geology - Exam II Review Minerals o Silicate...

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Exam II Review: 1. Minerals: o Silicate is the most abundant rock forming mineral. o What it is: Minerals are solid (can be melted), naturally formed, have chemical composition, and have crystal structure. Minerals do not have to be organic. 2. Rocks: Any naturally formed non-living, firm, and coherent aggregate mass of mineral matter that constitutes part of a plant. o Rock cycle is driven by tectonics and physical weathering. 3. Volcanoes: o Properties of Magma: 1. Composition-- Most volcanoes are Basaltic ex. Hawaiian volcanoes; only 10% of volcanoes are andesitic and rhyolitic ex. Mt St Helens and dormant volcanoes at Yellowstone 2. Viscosity 3. Temperature-- affects viscosity The higher the silicate content the more explosive the volcanoes are. Basaltic --> Andesitic --> Rhyolitic Lava: Aa and Pahoehoe (ropelike) o Explosive Eruption: eruption of a voluminous plume of tephra is typical (Mt. St. Helens) High in silicate content Lower temperatures High dissolved gas content Andesitic-Rhyolitic o Nonexplosive Eruption: eruption of effusive basalt (Hawaiian volcanoes) Low-viscosity magma Low dissolved gas Basaltic Magma: Lower silicate content Higher temperature Lower viscosity Lower gas content o Most explosive volcanoes occur at subduction zones. Geologic Time Cycle: MEMORIZE Fluxes: Pathway or rate Residence Time: o Flux: Assume input=output, and that units are in 1000km^3/year o RT= Amount/Flux OR Volume/Flux (units=time) Glaciers: o Glaciers and ice-sheets are the two biggest reservoirs of water. Early Exploration:
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Exam II Review Geology - Exam II Review Minerals o Silicate...

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