Food chem 181 Final Topic 8: chocolate and weight control Lesson 1: chocolate 8.1.1: - Chocolate known as good of the god o Lore of chocolate o Do people prefer sex or chocolate? Canada (1995) -> 30% men and 38% women prefer chocolate to sex Quebec -> 74% prefer chocolate to sex Nova Scotia -> 20% prefer chocolate to sex - Why do people love chocolate? o Although chemicals could explain the why we are attracted to chocolate, texture might do more job in this context Melting point of chocolate -> 36 ℃ 1 ℃ below body temperature Chocolate melts in mouth People love the sensation of chocolate melting in mouth - Swedish botanist called cocoa fruit the “Theobroma Cacao” o In Greek, “theo” means god o “Theobroma” means food of the gods - Aztec (Mexico) used cocoa drunks to satisfy the god o Difficult to make drinks because it does not dissolve easily o Cocoa on its own is bitter Cocoa or chocolate in Aztec language, “xocoatl” means bitter - Native used cocoa as currency o In Spaniards (Mexico), cocoa beans were found in vaults - Spaniards believed that cocoa had aphrodisiac property -> improve libido - Cocoa (chocolate) was mostly drunk, not eaten (in history) o Cocoa drink was mixed with lots of sugar, vanilla, and cinnamon to counteract the bitter taste - In Canada, we eat ~4kg (9Lbs) /year 8.1.2: - Cocoa flower belongs to the same family as orchid o Cocoa flower turns into cocoa pods, and they grow throughout the tree branches (not only extremities) o There is no cocoa growing seasons (grows throughout) - Types of cocoa o Forastero o Trinitero o Criollo Best of all cocoa is criollo - Process of cocoa o When cocoa is split open
there are cocoa nibs surrounded my white mucilage (coating) it is left open cocoa seeds start fermenting o sugar -> alcohol -> acetic acid -> esters o fermenting adds flavour to cocoa o After fermentation of seed, chocolate is left to dry in the sun o Roasted after drying (like coffee) Extract enhanced flavour to cocoa Maillard reaction (browning reaction) Involves combination of reactions between amino acids, proteins, and various sugar Gives taste to butter, bear, scotch, etc… Named after Monsieur Maillard, French chemist After maillard reaction, seeds become much darker o seeds are then shelled and crashed into cocoa nibs o Cocoa nibs are crashed in the machine, and becomes chocolate liquor No alcohol Basis for making chocolate - chocolate production o child labour in Ivory Coast o “Bitter chocolate” written by Carol Off -> underside of chocolate production o ‘Fair trade’ chocolate is available on market as well 8.1.3: - Closest taste to chocolate liquor, is baking chocolate o Used in baking - Chocolate itself is bitter, and has high fat content o In 19 th century, van Houten family tried to improve upon the properties of chocolate o Casparus van Houten found way to separate cocoa powder from fat using compressor Cocoa cake -> compressed cocoa powder (dark colour) Bitter & does not dissolve well Cocoa butter -> fat content (like butter)
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- Spring '11