Geog 181 - midterm 1 review .docx - LECTURE TWO MAPS Map definition \u201cA map is any concrete or abstract representation of the features that occur on or

Geog 181 - midterm 1 review .docx - LECTURE TWO MAPS Map...

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LECTURE TWO: MAPS Map definition: “A map is any concrete or abstract representation of the features that occur on or near the surface of the earth or other celestial bodies” Characteristics of maps: Plan or near-plan views Use of symbols Can show physical and cultural features Show location and attribute information Mental, virtual and real maps: Mental maps o Images of environment stored in our minds o Used for navigation, visualization Virtual (computer) maps o Temporary maps displayed on computer monitor o Database used to generate graphic display Real, or “cartographic” maps o Paper maps o Now generally produced by computers – i.e real map is a printout of a virtual map Mental maps: Represent knowledge of the spatial organization of our environment, characteristics of different locations or regions How do they acquire information: o Direct experience o Indirect experience (e.g. tv) o Extra-perception, i.e. thinking, or inference Differ from reality o Incomplete o Selective retention of information o More accurate for familiar areas Neighborhood mental maps: Three maps of the same neighborhood drawn by children, common elements found in each, but differences in scale, use of symbols, and details Images of urban environments: Image of the city: kevin lynch – urban theorist 5 things in the urban environment:
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o Paths – routes linking places together o Landmarks – office towers, historical buildings o Nodes – main centres of activity o Districts – homogenous areas o Edges – boundaires between districts Maps based on collected data: Charts/plans – hydographic, aeronautical General – reference, topographic, photomaps Thematic – univariate, special purpose Virtual maps: Computer maps o Temporary screen displays o Spatial databases used to generate maps Interactive o Based on selective query of data base – user can design custom map GIS locater – region of waterloo Google earth, google sky o Animation Growth of boston, weather maps Charts and plans: Variable scale To be worked on rather than looked at General reference maps: spatial association of features Accuracy standards E.g. topographic maps Thematic maps: Focus on particular theme, e.g. soils, population Univariate, multivariate, derived Cadastral map: Defines land ownership Functions of maps: Navigation o Road maps o Buse route maps
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o Hydrographic charts Visualization o Scale reduction – see spatial relationships or patterns Measurement o Geometric properties o Monitor change over time o Not all maps suitable for all types of measurement Characteristics of maps: Graphical representation of data and their spatial relationships Plan or near plan views Relate features in terms of distances and angles o May only be approximately correct due to distortion Use of symbols o Able to represent any characteristic which varies over space, not just physical features
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  • Fall '14
  • PeterDeadman
  • Map projection, o Equator,  Plan

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