Unformatted text preview: Mr. Dunbar AP European History Chapter 24: The Birth of Modern European Thought Chapter Overview • The faith in science that dominated thought in the second half of the nineteenth century. • Conflict between church and state over education. • Islam and late nineteenth-‐century European thought. • The effect of modernism in literature and art, psychoanalysis, and the revolution of physics on intellectual life. • Racism and anti-‐Semitism • Feminism in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century Section One: The New Reading Public • Section Overview: o Between 1850 and 1900, Europe emerged as a primarily literate society with a massive reading public. • Advances in Primary Education o Implementation of elementary schools by nation ! Hungary 1868 ! Britain 1870 ! Switzerland 1874 ! Italy 1877 ! France 1878-‐1881 o By 1900, nearly 85% of the inhabitants of Britain, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Scandinavia, and Germany were literate; Italy, Spain, Austria-‐Hungary, and the Balkans still had literacy rates between 30 and 60%. • Reading Material for the Mass Audience o Newspapers, books, magazines, mail-‐order catalogs, and libraries grew rapidly (1860-‐1900) o “Literacy was the intellectual parallel of the railroad and steamship. People could leave their original intellectual surroundings because literacy is not an end in itself, but leads to other skills and knowledge.” Section Two: Science at Mid-‐Century • Section Overview o Newtonian view of science—that nature operates as a vast machine according to mechanical principles—still prevailed at mid-‐century. o Rational, mechanical, dependable o The term ‘scientist’ invented in the 1830s. • Comte, Positivism, and the Prestige of Science o Positivism ! A philosophy of human intellectual development that culminated in science which was describes by Auguste Comte in The Positive Philosophy (1830-‐
1842). ! Three stages of human intellectual development • Stage one: theological stage • Stage two: metaphysical stage • Stage three: positive stage (exact descriptions of observable phenomena) o Comte considered the father of sociology ! He believed positive laws of social behavior could be formulated. • • o Link between science and technology now abundantly clear to people of Europe ! Prior to nineteenth-‐century, natural philosophy was studied by an intellectual elite and technological innovation usually developed by workers. ! Second Industrial Revolution marks the union of science and technology. Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection o Charles Darwin (1809-‐1882) ! On Origin of Species (1859) • Explained how species evolved over time through natural selection. • Influence by Thomas Malthus’ premise that more living organisms come into existence than can survive in their environment. • Natural selection is mechanistic; that is, it requires no guiding mind behind the development of organic nature. • ‘Darwinism’ contradicted the biblical narrative of Creation and also undermined the argument for the existence of God and fixity in nature. ! The Descent of Man (1871) • Application of the principle of evolution by natural selection to human beings. • Darwin contends that humankind’s moral nature and religious sentiments, as well as its physical frame, had developed naturalistically largely in response to the requirements of survival. Science an Ethics o Philosophers applied the struggle for survival to human social relationships. ! ‘survival of the fittest’ o Evolutionary Ethics and Social Darwinism ! Herbert Spencer—British philosopher and supporter of evolutionary ethics • Human societies progress through competition; if the weak receive too much protection, the rest of human kind is the loser o Idea used to justify not aiding the poor and the working class, colonialism, and aggressive competition between nations. o Doctrine of ‘might makes right.’ ! Thomas Henry Huxley—chief opponent of evolutionary ethics • Believed the physical process of evolution was at odds with human ethical development; the struggle in nature showed how humans should not behave. Section Three: Christianity and the Church Under Siege • Section Overview o Very difficult 19th century for Christian churches in Europe ! many intellectuals left the faith ! secular and liberal nation-‐states attacked the influence of the church • Intellectual Skepticism o Intellectuals challenged the historical credibility, the scientific accuracy, and the morality of the Christian church. ! History • David Friedrich Strauss (1808-‐1874), The Life of Jesus o Questioned whether the Bible provides any genuine historical evidence about Jesus. o Contends that the story of Jesus is a myth. • Julius Wellhausen (Germany), Ernst Renan (France), and William Robert Smith (Great Britain) all explained that the Bible had been written by human beings, like the Homeric epics, and were not divinely inspired. Science • Charles Lyell (1797-‐1875) o Geology proves that the earth is much older than biblical records claim o By looking at natural causes for floods, mountains, and valleys, he removed the miraculous hand of God from the physical development of the earth. • Anthropologists, psychologist, and sociologists proposed that religious sentiments are just one more set of natural phenomena. ! Morality • Old Testament God o Cruelty and unpredictability did not fit well with tolerant and rational liberal values. • New Testament God o Willing to sacrifice the only perfect being ever to walk the earth; seemed irrational. • Nietzche (1844-‐1900) o Portrayed Christianity as a religion that glorified weakness rather than the strength life required. o “War and courage have accomplished more great things than love of neighbor” Conflict Between Church and State o Great Britain ! Education Act of 1870 provided for state-‐supported schools run by elected school boards, whereas previously the government had given grants to religious schools. • Anglican Church vs. state • Anglican Church vs. other Christian denominations ! Education Act of 1902 provided funding for both religious and nonreligious schools and imposed the same standards on each. o France ! Falloux Law of 1850 • local priest provided religious education in the public schools ! The Third Republic vs. the Catholic Church • Between 1878 and 1886, a series of educational laws sponsored by Jules Ferry (1832-‐1893) replaced religious instruction in the public schools with civic training. o Germany and the Kulturkampf ! In 1870, Bismarck removed the clergy from overseeing local education in Prussia and set education under state direction. ! “May Laws” of 1873 (applied to Prussia but not the entire German Empire) • required priests to be educated in German schools and universities and to pass state examinations. • state could veto the appointments of priests. • Many clergy refused to obey these laws and by 1876 Bismarck had either arrested or expelled all Catholic bishops from Prussia ! Kulturkampffailed as many Germans remained loyal to the Catholic Church Areas of Religious Revival o Despite state attempts to strip the Christian churches in Europe of privileges and power, new churches and religious schools expanded and devotion increased in some areas. ! Many in France believed they lost the Franco-‐Prussian War due to sin and increased piety in France in the 1870s and 1880s is evident. ! • • • • • Ie. Cult of the miracle of Lourdes The Roman Catholic Church and the Modern World o Syllabus of Errors issued by Pope Pius IX in 1864 ! pitted the Catholic faith against science, philosophy, and politics. o First Vatican Council 1869 ! Papal infallibility • The pope was the ultimate source of truth when speaking on matters of faith and morals. • No earlier pope had asserted such centralized authority within the church. ! Pope Pius IX and many other Roman Catholics believed the Church could only sustain itself in the modern world of nation-‐states with large electorates by centering the authority of the church in the papacy itself. o Pope Leo XIII (r. 1878-‐1903) ! RerumNovarum(1891), an alternative to socialism and capitalism • Defended private property, religious education, and religious control of marriage laws, and he condemned socialism and Marxism, but also declared that employers should treat employees justly. • Corporate societies o Supported laws that protected workers and urged modern society to be organized in corporate groups that would include people from various classes who would cooperate according to Christian principles. • Democratic Catholic political parties were formed throughout Europe as a result of Leo’s pronouncement. o Pope Pius X (r. 1903-‐1914) ! Required all priests to take an anti-‐Modernist oath, Islam and Late-‐Nineteenth Century European Thought o The few European intellectuals who wrote about Islam subjected it to the same critical historical analysis that was being directed toward the Bible. ! Islam, like other great world religions, was seen as a product of a particular culture. ! Ernst Renan and Max Weber dismissed Islam as a religion and culture incapable of developing science and closed to new ideas. o Jamal al-‐din Al-‐Afghani ! Egyptian intellectual who challenged Renan’s view. ! claimed that over time Islam would eventually produce cultures as modern as those in Europe. o Anti-‐Islamic attitudes ! Blamed Islam for economic backwardness, for mistreating women, and for condoning slavery. o Christian missionaries had little success in the Islamic world as punishment for conversion was death ! Missionaries did establish western schools and hospitals in the Islamic world o Ottoman government supported Western scientific education and technology. ! Salafi, or the salafiyya movement • Believed in a reformed view of the Islamic faith which emphasized a rational reading of the Qur’an and saw Ottoman decline as the result of Muslim religious error. • This outlook, which had originally sought to reconcile Islam with the modern world, eventually led many Muslims in the twentieth century to oppose Western influence. ! Mahdist movement in Sudan, the Sanussiya in Libya, and the Wahhabi movement in the Arabian peninsula simply rejected the West and modern thought. Section Four: Toward A Twentieth-‐Century Frame of Mind • Section Overview o The last quarter of the nineteenth century and the first decade of the twentieth century were the ‘crucible’ of modern Western thought. o Philosophers, scientist, psychologist, and artists began to portray physical reality, human nature, and society in ways different from the past and these new ideas challenged the mid-‐nineteenth century science, rationalism, liberalism, and bourgeois morality. • Science: The Revolution in Physics o Ernst Mach, The Science of Mechanics (1883) ! Argued that scientist consider their concepts descriptive not of the physical world, but of the sensations the scientific observer experiences. o Henri Poincare ! Theories of scientists should be regarded as hypothetical constructs of the human mind rather than as true descriptions of nature. ! By World War I, few scientists believed they could portray the ‘truth’ about physical reality, but rather saw themselves as recording the observations of instruments and as offering useful hypothetical or symbolic models of nature. o X Rays and Radiation ! Wilhelm Roentgen discovered x rays (a form of energy that penetrated various opaque materials) in 1895. ! Henri Becquerel discovered that uranium emitted a similar form of energy in 1896. ! J.J. Thomson formulated the theory of the electron in 1897. ! Ernst Rutherford explained the cause of radiation through the disintegration of the atoms of radioactive materials. o Theories of Quantum Energy, Relativity, and Uncertainty ! Max Planck, 1900 • Pioneered the explanation of the quantum theory of energy, according to which energy is a series of discrete quantities, or packets, rather than a continuous stream. ! Albert Einstein, 1905 • Published his first paper on relativity in which he contended that time and space exist not separately, but rather as a combined continuum. • The measurement of time and space, therefore, depends on the observer as well as on the entities being measured. ! Werner Heisenberg, 1927 • Uncertainty principle—the behavior of subatomic particles is a matter of statistical probability rather than exactly determinable cause and effect. ! Applied science and technology in the areas of chemistry, physics, and medicine affected daily living more than ever before and scientists were able to find increased funding from governments. • • Literature: Realism and Naturalism o Realist and naturalist movement in literature ! portrayed the hypocrisy, brutality, and dullness that underlay bourgeois life. ! infused scientific objectivity and observation in their works. ! realism rejected the romantic idealization of nature, the poor, love, and polite society. ! portrayed human beings as subject to passions, materialistic determinism, and the pressures of the environment like any other animal. o Charles Dickens and Honore de Balzac ! Early realist writers who portrayed the cruelty of industrial life and of a society based on money. o Flaubert and Zola ! Madame Bovary, GustaveFalubert • tells the story of the dullness of provincial life as a woman searches for love in and outside of marriage; the work portrayed life without heroism, purpose, or even civility, • considered the first realist novel ! Emile Zola • He wrote ‘experimental’ novels in which he would observe and report the characters and their actions as the scientist might relate laboratory experiments. • Between 1871 and 1893, he published twenty novels exploring subjects like alcoholism, prostitution, adultery, and labor strife. • He took a leading role in the defense of Dreyfus o Ibsen and Shaw ! Henrik Ibsen (1828-‐1906) • Norwegian playwright who carried realism into the dramatic presentation of domestic life. • In A Doll’s House the protagonist has a husband who refuses to tolerate independence of character or thought on her part; she finally leaves him. • In Ghosts, he writes of a respectable woman with a son suffering from syphilis inherited from her husband. ! George Bernard Shaw • Irish writer who supported Ibsen and adopted many aspects of his style. • In Mrs. Warren’s Profession (1893), he tells the story of a prostitute. • In Man and Superman, he scorned the romantic ideals of love and war. Modernism in Literature o Modernism ! New movement in late 19th century art and literature that was critical of middle-‐class society and morality ! Not concerned with social issues, but instead focused on aesthetic and beauty. ! Modernism in literature arose before World War I and flourished after the war, nourished by the turmoil and social dislocation it created. o Virginia Woolf (1882-‐1941) ! British modernist writer ! Novels like Mrs. Dalloway (1925) and To the Lighthouse (1927) portrayed individuals seeking to make their way in the world with most of the nineteenth century social and moral certainties removed. o Marcel Proust ! French modernist Wrote a seven-‐volume novel In Search of Time Past (1913-‐1927) in which he adopted a stream-‐of-‐consciousness format that allowed him to explore his memories. ! He would concentrate on a single experience and then allow his mind to wander through all the thoughts and memories it evoked. o Thomas Mann (1875-‐1955) ! German modernist ! His books Buddenbrooks and The Magic Mountain explored the social experience of middle class Germans and how the dealt with the intellectual heritage of the nineteenth century The Coming of Modern Art o Impressionism ! Themes and Departure from traditinal European art • Instead of religious, mythological, and historical scenes, painters began to depict modern life • Social, leisure, and urban life of the middle and lower middle classes. • Fascination with light, color to create a visual experience for viewer • Leading impressionist painters • Edward Manet, Claude Monet, Camille Pissaro, Pierre-‐Auguste Renoir, and Edgar Degas painted Parisian cafes, dance halls, concerts, picnics, horse races, boating, and beach parties o A Bar at the Folies-‐Bergere, Manet ! Depicted a young barmaid standing behind a table holding liquor and wine bottles. ! Interpretation—barmaid’s expression may suggest the anonymity of many social encounters in modern urban life. o Post-‐impressionism ! Leading post-‐impressionist painters • Georges Seurat, Paul Cezanne, Vincent Van Gogh, and Paul Gauguin o Seurat (1859-‐1891) ! developed the technique known as poitillism ! introduced social commentary into the impressionist portrayal of leisured activities (ie. A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of the Grande Jatte) o Paul Cezanne (1839-‐1906) ! attempted to bring form and solidity back into his paintings of still life and landscapes. o Paul Gaugin (1848-‐1903) ! portrayed works of people from the South Pacific o Cubsim ! Style and technique, and artists • Considered the single most important new departure from traditional art in early twentieth-‐century as they rejected the goal of art as to depict the world realistically. • Pablo Picasso (1881-‐1973) and Georges Braque (1882-‐1962) o Pioneered a new style of art in which they sought to rejected that painting constitutes a window unto the real world; instead, the saw painting as an autonomous realm of art itself with no purpose beyond itself. ! • • • o The space in their paintings was literally space between two dimensions filled with geometric shapes and geometric voids; the shapes stand dismantled, set in new and unusally
unepxected positions, communicating a sense of dislocation (ie. Braque’s Violin and Palette) Friedrich Nietzsche and the Revolt Against Reason o Philosophy in the late nineteenth century ! Philosophers began to question the adequacy of rational thinking to address the human situation. o Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-‐1900) ! he challenged Christianity, democracy, nationalism, rationailty, science, and progess ! he sought less to change values than to probe their sources in the human character ! The Birth of Tragedy (1872) • Argued that nonrational aspects of human nature are as important and noble as rational characteristics. • To limit human activity to rational behavior is to impoverish human life. ! Thus Spake Zarathustra (1883) • Criticized democracy and Christianity as both would lead to mediocrity of ‘sheepish’ masses • In this book he announced the death of God and proclaimed the coming of Overman who would embody heroism and greatness. • He wanted a return to the heroism he associated with Greek life and the Homeric age. ! Beyond Good and Evil (1886) and The Genealogy of Morals (1887) • he sought to discover not what was good and evil, but the social and psychological sources of the judgement of good and evil. • “There are no moral phenomena at all, but only a moral interpretation of phenomena.” Therefore, morality is a human convention. ! Nietsche drew upon Romantic tradition in his appeal to feelings and emotions. The Birth of Psychoanalysis o Overview of psychoanalysis ! Early psychologist sought to discern the undercurrents, tensions, and complexities that lay beneath the calm surfaces of hard atoms, respectable families, rationality, and social relationships. o Development of Freud’s Early Theories ! Early in his career he worked with psychic disorders and hypnosis ! In the mid 1890s, Freud abandoned hypnosis and allowed his patients to talk freely and spontaneously about themselves and found that they associated their experiences with events of childhood. ! He formulated a theory that unconscious sexual drives already exist in infants and do not simply emerge at puberty. o Freud’s Concern with Dreams ! Freud believed the seemingly irrational content of dreams must have a reasonable, scientific explanation. ! “The dream is the disguised fulfillment of a suppressed wish.” ! The Interpret...
View Full Document