Chapter 7..

Chapter 7.. - Chapter 7 - Minerals Minerals Solid,...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 7 - Minerals Minerals Solid, crystalline substances Do not contain carbon Are not broken down by chemical processes like digestion Able to carry an electrical charge - Major minerals Re q uir e d in lar g e r a m o u n t s 100 m g/d ay are n e e d e d Trace Minerals Re q uir e d in s m all er a m o u n t s Les s t h a n 1 0 0 m g / d a y a r e n e e d e d Electrolytes m i n e r al s alt s dis s olv e d in w a t e r, inclu di n g: So di u m Pot a s si u m Chlorid e Pho s p h or u s For m ion s el e c t ric ally c h a r g e d p a r ticl e s Carry el e c t ric al c h a r g e s Maint ai n fluid b al a n c e For m e d fro m a s alt in s olu tio n Ex: NaCl, s o di u m a n d c hlorid e a r e el e c tr olyt e s Mos t b o d y w a t e r insid e c ells Wat e r h el d in c o m p a r t m e n t s (c ells) d u e t o el e c tric ally c h a r g e d p a r ticl e s ( el e c tr olyt e Wat e r flow s t ow a r d t h e m o s t c o n c e n t r a t e d s o ur c e of el e c trolyt e s t o dilu t e a n d e q u a Fluid Balance Water Functions Carri e s n u t ri e n t s Par ticip a t e s in r e a c tio n s S e rv e s a s a s olv e n t Act s a s a lubric a n t S e rv e s a s a s h o ck a b s o r b e r Te m p e r a t ur e m ai n t e n a n c e Water Balance In Metabolism ~ 200-300ml Beverages 500-1,500 ml Foods 700-1,000 ml Out Kidneys ~ 500-1,400 ml Skin ~ 450 900 ml Lungs ~ 350 ml Feces ~ 150 ml Total 1,500 2,800 ml Water Balance Thirs t m e c h a ni s m Hypo t h al a m u s s e n s e s incr e a s e d s o diu m Low bloo d volu m e or pr e s s ur e Rel e a s e s h or m o n e - - - Kidneys decrease urine output Water drawn from salivar y glands Thirst mechanism lags, not per fect Sign of Dehydration Replacing fluids Wt loss due to dehydration 1 lb = 2 cups Rapid fluid replacement 68% carbohydrates with electrolytes Excessive sweating Electrolytes Climate Activity level Athletes can lose up to gallon per hour Diuretic activity Water Sources Sources surface or ground Public (municipal) or commercial hard calcium and magnesium Antihypertensive nutrients soft sodium Hypertensive nutrients Dissolve heavy metals Bottled Treated and filtered More or less minerals Ozone treated instead of chlorine Sodium Functions of sodium Fluid and electrolyte balance Associated with blood pressure and pH balance in t he body Required for ner ve impulse transmission Assists in the transpor t of cer tain nutrients (e.g., glucose) into body cells Recommended intake AI is 1. 5 g/ d a y ( a littl e m o r e t h a n 1 / 2 a t e a s p o o n) Up p e r limit 2 4 0 0 m g / d a y US a v e r a g e + 3 3 0 0 m g / d a y Sources of sodium Proc e s s e d foo d s a r e s u r prisin gly hi g h in s o di u m . Hyp e r t e n sio n High bloo d pr e s s ur e Not n e c e s s a rily c a u s e d b y s o diu m , b u t h y p e r t e n sio n is m o r e c o m m o n in p e o pl e w h o c o n s u m e m o r e s o di u m . DASH diet Increase of fruits, vegetables, nuts, whole grains, and low fat dairy Reduction in butter, red fatty meat, and sodium Magnesium, potassium, calcium, protein, fiber High sodium diets increase calcium in the urine Hyponatremia Potassium Functions of potassium Bal a n c e of fluid s a n d s o di u m Very im p or t a n t in m u s cl e c o n tr a c tio n s a n d tr a n s mi s sio n of n e r v e im p uls e s High p o t a s si u m int ak e h el p s m ai n t ai n a low e r blo o d pr e s s ur e Recommended intake AI for a d ult s is 4. 7 g/ d a y Sources of potassium Proc e s s e d foo d s a r e u s u ally low in p o t a s si u m Fre s h fruit, v e g e t a bl e s, a n d w h ol e g r ai n s a r e g o o d s o urc e s of p o t a s si u m Potassium toxicityr ar e in h e al t h y p e o pl e b e c a u s e t h e kid n e y s e x cr e t e t h e e x c e s s . is Potassium deficiency s o r ar e b u t c a n o c c u r in p a ti e n t s wit h kid n e y di s e a s e . is al Chloride - Functions of chloride Assis t s wit h m ai n t ai nin g fluid b al a n c e Assis t s t h e im m u n e s y s t e m in killin g b a c t e ri a Assis t s in t h e tr a n s mi s sio n of n e r v e im p uls e s Sources of chloride: S alt pr e s e n t in foo d s So m e fruit s a n d v e g e t a bl e s There are no known toxicity symptoms and chloride deficiencies are also rare. Chromium a tr a c e mi n e r al Gluc o s e Toler a n c e Fact or fou n d e s p e ci ally in m u s hr o o m s , p r u n e s , d a rk c h o c ol a t e , n u t s , w h ol e g r ai n s, a n d c er e a Manganese a tr a c e mi n e r al involv e d in e n e r g y m e t a b olis m involv e d in t h e pr o d u c tio n of b o n e a n d c a r til a g e r ar ely d efici e n t in h u m a n s Sulfur a m aj or m i n e r al a c o m p o n e n t of t h e B vit a mi n s t hi a mi n a n d bio tin e s s e n ti al t o t h e s h a p e of pr o t ei n s A c o m p o n e n t of s o m e a mi n o a ci d s (pro t ei n s) For m s di s ulfid e brid g e s for s tr e n g t h in s t r u c t u r al p r o t ei n s Im p or t a n t c o m p o n e n t of c o n n e c tiv e tis s u e (t e n d o n s ,lig a m e n t s) not known to be toxic or seen in deficiencies Iodine - a tr a c e mi n e r al critic al for m a ki n g t h yr oid h or m o n e s fou n d in s alt w a t e r fis h a d d e d t o t a bl e s alt (io diz e d s alt) Both iodine deficiency and toxicity can result in hypothyroidism and goiter. ...
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