Chapter 9 - Chapter 9- ENERGY BALANCES What Is a Healthful...

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Chapter 9- ENERGY BALANCES What Is a Healthful Body Weight? A healthful weight: - is appropriate for your age - is consistent with family history and genetics - is maintained without constant dieting - is compatible with normal blood pressure, lipid levels, and glucose tolerance - promotes good eating habits and allows for regular physical activity - is acceptable to you Underweight : having too little body fat to maintain health Overweight : having a moderate amount of excess body fat Obesity : having an excess of body fat that adversely affects health Morbid obesity : body weight exceeding 100% of normal, creating a very high risk for serious health complications Evaluating Body Weight Determining a person’s healthful body weight should include methods to: - determine the body mass index (BMI) - measure body composition - assess the pattern of fat distribution Body Mass Index (BMI) - Compares a person’s weight to their height - Gives an indication of a person’s overall health - BMI values below 18.5 or above 30 have increased risks of health problems BMI = weight (kg ) height2 (meters) Correlates with body fatness Unsuitable for muscular athletes, pregnant women, and the elderly Body Composition - Measurement of body fat and lean body mass - Can be measured by: underwater weighing (was standard) Skin fold measurements bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) Bod Pod®
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DEXA (duel energy x-ray abs.) Fat Distribution Pattern - Measured by waist-to-hip ratio - Apple-shaped fat patterning – upper body obesity - Increased risk for chronic diseases - Pear-shaped fat patterning – lower body obesity - No significant increased risk for chronic diseases - Evaluating Body Weight Gaining or Losing Weight Whether a person gains or losses weight depends on: - energy intake vs. energy expenditure - genetic factors - childhood weight - behavioral factors - social factors Energy balance - Occurs when energy intake = energy expenditure - Energy intake = kcal from food - Energy expenditure = energy expended at rest, during physical activity, and as a result of eating food Balance, Energy in = Energy out In > out = wt gain In < out = wt loss IN – Energy intake comes from the foods we consume OUT - Energy expenditure varies with body size and activity level 1 pound of body fat ~ 3,500 Calories of energy stored. Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) - Energy expended to maintain basal, or resting, functions of the body - Basal metabolism is the highest proportion of total energy expenditure - More lean tissue increases your BMR - BMR decreases with age BMR = RMR BMR contribution (%) Liver – 29 Brain – 19
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Heart – 10 Kidney – 7 Skeletal muscle – 18 The rest – 17 Total 100 % Energy Needs
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This note was uploaded on 04/02/2008 for the course NATS 104 taught by Professor Lewis during the Spring '08 term at University of Arizona- Tucson.

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Chapter 9 - Chapter 9- ENERGY BALANCES What Is a Healthful...

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