Lecture 03 (1-23)

Lecture 03 (1-23) - Anthro 1 Lecture 3 Lecture Outline The...

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Anthro 1 Lecture 3 – 1/23/07 Lecture Outline The Cell DNA Structure DNA Replication Protein Synthesis What is a Gene? Cell Division: Mitosis and Meiosis New Frontiers The Cell Cells are the basic units of life in all living organisms. In some forms, such as bacteria, a single cell constitutes the entire organism. Complex life forms, such as plants and animals, are made up of billions of cells. An adult human is made up of perhaps as many as 1,000 billion cells, all functioning in complex ways that promote the survival of the individual. Structure of a Eukaryotic Cell The outer boundary of a cell is the cell membrane. Organelles are structures found in the cytoplasm: Mitochondria produce energy. Ribosomes manufacture protein The nucleus is surrounded by the cytoplasm and contains chromosomes. Types of Cells Somatic cells are components of body tissue. Gametes are sex cells. Ova are produced in female ovaries. Sperm are produced in male testes. A zygote is the union between a sperm and an ovum. DNA Structure Cellular function and an organism’s inheritance depends on the structure and function of DNA. DNA is composed of two chains of nucleotides. A nucleotide consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and one of four nitrogenous bases. Nucleotides form long chains. The two chains are held together by bonds formed on their bases with their complement on the other chain. Adenine (A) is the complement of Thymine(T) Guanine(G) is the complement of Cytosine(C)
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The DNA Replication Process 1. Enzymes break the bonds between the DNA molecule. 2. Two nucleotide chains serve as templates for the formation of a new strand of nucleotides.
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This note was uploaded on 04/02/2008 for the course ANTHRO 1 taught by Professor Wilkie during the Spring '08 term at Berkeley.

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Lecture 03 (1-23) - Anthro 1 Lecture 3 Lecture Outline The...

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