MedSurgSuccess.pdf - 00Colgrave(F-FM 12:33 PM Page i Med-Surg Success A Course Review Applying Critical Thinking to Test Taking 00Colgrave(F-FM 12:33 PM

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Unformatted text preview: 00Colgrave(F)-FM 8/30/06 12:33 PM Page i Med-Surg Success A Course Review Applying Critical Thinking to Test Taking 00Colgrave(F)-FM 8/30/06 12:33 PM Page ii 00Colgrave(F)-FM 8/30/06 12:33 PM Page iii Med-Surg Success A Course Review Applying Critical Thinking to Test Taking KATHRYN CADENHEAD COLGROVE RN, MS, CNS, OCN Trinity Valley Community College Kaufman, Texas JUDY CALLICOATT RN, MS, CNS Trinity Valley Community College Kaufman, Texas Consultant: Ray A. Hargrove-Huttel RN, PhD Trinity Valley Community College Kaufman, Texas 00Colgrave(F)-FM 8/30/06 12:33 PM Page iv F. A. Davis Company 1915 Arch Street Philadelphia, PA 19103 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis Company Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis Company. All rights reserved. This book is protected by copyright. No part of it may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without written permission from the publisher. Printed in the United States of America Last digit indicates print number: 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Publisher, Nursing: Robert G. Martone Content Development Manager: Darlene D. Pedersen Project Editor: Thomas A. Ciavarella Art and Design Manager: Carolyn O’Brien As new scientific information becomes available through basic and clinical research, recommended treatments and drug therapies undergo changes. The author(s) and publisher have done everything possible to make this book accurate, up to date, and in accord with accepted standards at the time of publication. The author(s), editors, and publisher are not responsible for errors or omissions or for consequences from application of the book, and make no warranty, expressed or implied, in regard to the contents of the book. Any practice described in this book should be applied by the reader in accordance with professional standards of care used in regard to the unique circumstances that may apply in each situation. The reader is advised always to check product information (package inserts) for changes and new information regarding dose and contraindications before administering any drug. Caution is especially urged when using new or infrequently ordered drugs. ISBN 13: 978-0-8036-1576-2 ISBN 10: 0-8036-1576-0 Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use, or the internal or personal use of specific clients, is granted by F. A. Davis Company for users registered with the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) Transactional Reporting Service, provided that the fee of $.10 per copy is paid directly to CCC, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923. For those organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged. The fee code for users of the Transactional Reporting Service is: 8036-1576/07 ! $.10. 00Colgrave(F)-FM 8/30/06 12:33 PM Page v Dedication The authors would like to dedicate this book to the Trinity Valley Community College Associate Degree nursing students who graduated in 2005 and 2006. Thank you for giving of your time to pilot the questions and provide us constructive feedback. We would like to thank Bob Martone for giving us the opportunity to embark on this endeavor. Our appreciation goes to Barbara Tchabovsky for her assistance in editing the book and answering our numerous questions via e-mail, which is a wonderful invention. Our thanks go to Tom Ciavarella for supporting us through the maze of publishing this book. This book would not be possible without the unbelievable computer skills of Glada Norris. —The Authors I would like to dedicate this book to the memory of my mother, Mary Cadenhead, and grandmother, Elsie Rogers. They always told me that I could accomplish anything I wanted to accomplish. I would like to dedicate this book to my husband, Larry, daughter Laurie and son-in-law Todd, and son Larry Jr. and daughter-in-law Mai, and grandchildren Chris, Ashley, Justin C., Justin A., and Connor. Without their support and patience, the book would not have been possible. —Kathryn Colgrove This book is dedicated to my husband, George; my family, and my friends, who love and support me. Many thanks are given to the students who teach me and inspire me by persevering through the difficulties of nursing school. I want to extend my gratitude to members of the profession of nursing, both faculty and staff who share their art with nursing students. —Judy Callicoatt This book is dedicated to the memory of my husband, Bill, and my parents, T/Sgt. Leo and Nancy Hargrove, who are the rocks on which my life is built. I would like to thank my sisters, Gail and Debbie; my nephew Benjamin; and Paula for their support and encouragement through the good times and the bad. My children, Teresa and Aaron, are the most important people in my life and I want to thank them for always believing in me. —Ray Hargrove-Huttel v 00Colgrave(F)-FM 8/30/06 12:33 PM Page vi 00Colgrave(F)-FM 8/30/06 12:33 PM Page vii Reviewers Freda Black, MSN, RN, ANP-BC Assistant Professor Ivy Tech State College Gary, Indiana Anne Dunphy, RN, MA, CS Nursing Instructor Delaware Technical & Community College Newark, Delaware Judy R. Hembd, RN, BSN, MSN Assistant Professor Montana State University-Northern Department of Nursing Havre, Montana Linda Ann Kucher, BSN, MSN Assistant Professor of Nursing Gordon College Barnesville, Georgia Regina M. O’Drobinak, MSN, RN, ANP-BC Assistant Professor, Associate of Science in Nursing Ivy Tech State College Gary, Indiana Elizabeth Palmer, PhD, RN Assistant Professor of Nursing Indiana University of Pennsylvania Indiana, Pennsylvania vii 00Colgrave(F)-FM 8/30/06 12:33 PM Page viii 00Colgrave(F)-FM 8/30/06 12:33 PM Page ix Editors and Contributors Joan L. Consullo, RN, MS, CNRN Advanced Clinical Nurse, Neuroscience St. Luke’s Episcopal Hospital Houston, Texas Michelle L. Edwards, RN, MSN, ACNP, FNP Advanced Practice Nurse, Cardiology Acute Care Nurse Practitioner/Family Nurse Practitioner St. Luke’s Episcopal Hospital Houston, Texas Gail F. Graham, APRN, MS, NP-C Advanced Practice Nurse, Internal Medicine Adult Nurse Practitioner St. Luke’s Episcopal Hospital Houston, Texas Elester E. Stewart, RRT, RN, MSN, FNP Advanced Practice Nurse, Pulmonary Family Nurse Practitioner St. Luke’s Episcopal Hospital Houston, Texas Leslie Prater, RN, MS, CNS, CDE Clinical Diabetes Educator Associate Degree Nursing Instructor Trinity Valley Community College Kaufman, Texas Helen Reid, RN, PhD Dean, Health Occupations Trinity Valley Community College Kaufman, Texas ix 00Colgrave(F)-FM 8/30/06 12:33 PM Page x 00Colgrave(F)-FM 8/30/06 12:33 PM Page xi Contents 1 Fundamentals of Critical Thinking Related to Test Taking: The RACE Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 GUIDELINES FOR USING THIS BOOK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 PREPARING FOR LECTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 PREPARING FOR AN EXAMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 TAKING THE EXAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 UNDERSTANDING THE TYPES OF NURSING QUESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 THE RACE MODEL: THE APPLICATION OF CRITICAL THINKING TO MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2 Neurological Disorders 3 Cardiac Disorders 4 Peripheral Vascular Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 PRACTICE QUESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Arterial Hypertension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Arterial Occlusive Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Atherosclerosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Deep Vein Thrombosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Peripheral Venous Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 .................................................7 PRACTICE QUESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Cerebrovascular Accident . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Head Injury . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Spinal Cord Injury . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Seizures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Brain Tumor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Meningitis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Parkinson’s Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Substance Abuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Encephalitis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 PRACTICE QUESTIONS ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 PRACTICE QUESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Congestive Heart Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Angina/Myocardial Infarction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Coronary Artery Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Valvular Heart Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Dysrhythmias and Conduction Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Inflammatory Cardiac Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 PRACTICE QUESTIONS ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 xi 00Colgrave(F)-FM xii 9/1/06 8:53 PM Page xii CONTENTS PRACTICE QUESTIONS ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 5 Hematological Disorder 6 Respiratory Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 PRACTICE QUESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Upper Respiratory Infection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Lower Respiratory Infection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Chronic Pulmonary Obstructive Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 Reactive Airway Disease (Asthma) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 Lung Cancer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 Cancer of the Larynx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Pulmonary Embolus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Chest Trauma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 PRACTICE QUESTIONS ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 7 Gastrointestinal Disorders 8 Endocrine Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 PRACTICE QUESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 Diabetes Mellitus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 Pancreatitis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273 Cancer of the Pancreas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274 Adrenal Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 Pituitary Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278 Thyroid Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 PRACTICE QUESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Leukemia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Lymphoma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Anemia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Bleeding Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Blood Transfusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Sickle Cell Anemia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 PRACTICE QUESTIONS ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 PRACTICE QUESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 Gastroesophageal Reflux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 Inflammatory Bowel Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 Peptic Ulcer Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 Colorectal Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 Diverticulosis/Diverticulitis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 Gallbladder Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 Liver Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 Hepatitis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Gastroenteritis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 Abdominal Surgery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 Eating Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 Constipation/Diarrhea Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 PRACTICE QUESTIONS ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 00Colgrave(F)-FM 8/30/06 12:33 PM Page xiii CONTENTS PRACTICE QUESTIONS ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301 9 Genitourinary Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 PRACTICE QUESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306 Acute Renal Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306 Chronic Renal Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 Fluid and Electrolyte Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309 Urinary Tract Infection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312 Renal Calculi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313 Cancer of the Bladder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 PRACTICE QUESTIONS ANSWERS AND RATIONALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...
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